Forgotten Japonisme - Research Output

FJ annotated bibliography, biographies and histories July 2010

Abe, Stanley K. (2008) To Avoid the Inscrutable: Abstract Expressionism and the ‘Oriental Mode’. In: Discrepant Abstraction (Annotating Art’s Histories: Cross-Cultural Perspectives in the Visual Arts), edited by Mercer Kobena, London & Cambridge, Mass.: Institute of International Visual arts and MIT Press, 53-72.

Ashmore, Sonia and Suga, Yasuko (2006) Red House and Asia: A House and its Heritage. The Journal of William Morris Studies, vol. 17, no. 1, Winter, 5-26.

Ambassadors of Good Will (1953) Time, Pacific edition, July 13, 30. SO

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The Architectural Review

The first edition of The Architectural Review (AR) ‘For the Artist and Craftsman’ was published in November 1896; the journal evolved from The Builder’s Journal and Architecture Review. By 1919 the AR was ‘A Magazine of Architecture and Decoration’. In 1927 Hubert de Cronin Hastings became editor, and John Betjeman assistant editor in 1928, when the diversity of contributors extended to other writers and social commentators: Hilaire Belloc, D H Lawrence and Evelyn Waugh. Under new editorship the journal reviewed all the arts: painting, sculpture and film, evolving into more adventurous publication. In the early 1930s the work of modernist young ‘turks’ Serge Chermayeff, Wells Coates, Raymond McGrath and F R S Yorke frequently appeared. In 1935 J M Richards succeeded Betjeman, becoming editor in 1937, and the periodical became a more professional architectural journal. Modernism was documented and analysed; Herbert Read and Nikolaus Pevsner joined John Gloag as commentators and critics. From its inception the AR periodically made mention of Japan and Japanese architecture. AB

Argan, Giulio C. (1976) Japan's Contribution to Contemporary Art. In: Yamada, Chisaburô F. ed. Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. London, Paris & Tokyo: Kodansha International, 183-196. PS [Editing in progress]


Asada, Sadao (2007) Culture Shock and Japanese-American Relations: Historical Essays. Columbia & London: University of Missouri Press. PS

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Aslin, Elizabeth (1969) The Aesthetic Movement: Prelude to Art Nouveau. London: Elek. TW

Auden, Wystan H. & Isherwood, Christopher (1939) Journey to a War. London: Faber & Faber.

In the summer of 1937 Auden and Isherwood were commissioned to write a travel book on the East. The location of China was chosen on the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war in August 1937. This volume, in prose and verse, is a fascinating account of their journey, leaving England in January 1938 and Hong Kong on 28 February 1938, to travel to main land China, where they attempted to experience war at first hand. They encountered various Chinese military officials including Chiang Kai-shek, western missionaries, doctors, Red and White Russians. They witnessed many Japanese air attacks, describing one in Hankow on 29 April, the Japanese Emperor’s birthday, when five hundred civilians were killed: ‘Such were the Emperor’s birthday presents’ (p. 175). Their attitude towards the Japanese appeared fairly ambivalent until they reached Shanghai when they came face to face with four Japanese civilians at a lunch arranged for them by an eminent British business man which caused their resolve of tact to be sorely tested. AB

Auslin, Michael R. (2007) Japan Society: celebrating a century 1907-2007

www.japansociety.org/resources/content/9/7/8/documents/CentBook.01-57.pdf (revised and updated by Edwin O. Reischauer) SO [Editing in progress]


Basham, Anna (2006) Dovetailing East and West: Wells Coates, Japonisme and the British Modern Movement. The Journal of the Design History Workshop Japan, issue 4, 13-62.

Basham, Anna (2007) From Victorian to Modernist: the changing perceptions of Japanese architecture encapsulated in Wells Coates’ Japonisme dovetailing East and West, PhD thesis, University of the Arts London.


Behrens, Roy R. (1998) Art, Design and Gestalt Theory. Leonardo, vol. 31, no. 4, 299-303. PS [Editing in progress]

Benedict, Ruth (1946) The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture. Rutland, VT: Tuttle. Shannon, Christopher (1995) A World Made Safe for Differences: Ruth Benedict’s The Chrysanthemum and the Sword. American Quarterly, vol. 47, December, 659-680. The anthropologist Ruth Benedict’s The Chrysanthemum and the Sword was a very popular and influential product of America’s wartime project to understand and ‘explain’ the enemy. Anthropologists were mobilised by the government to use their skills to analyse and advise and, although she never visited East Asia, Benedict’s book enjoyed considerable impact. The book offers a model of intercultural understanding in the post-war reconstruction of Japan largely based on the liberal values of her mentor, the anthropologist, Franz Boas. The easy style of her writing made the book accessible to a mainstream audience and it is still seen as a classic in its field. In his article Shannon offers a contemporary critique of Benedict’s fundamental values particularly in regard to current debates about multiculturalism and assimilation of non-western cultures and the role played by anthropology. It is a useful re-examination of the validity of the anthropological approach to post-war reconstruction. RS

Berger, Klaus (1980) Japonismus in der westlichen Malerei 1860-1920. Munich: Prestel. TW

Binyon, Laurence (1935) The Spirit of Man in Asian Art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. JS

Brandimarte, Cynthia A. (1991) Japanese Novelty Stores. Winterthur Portfolio 26. SO [Editing in progress]

Brown, Kendall H. (1999) Japanese-Style Gardens of the Pacific West Coast. New York: Rizzoli.

This book introduces about 20 major Japanese-style gardens of the Pacific West Coast of Canada and the USA with many full-page colour photographs taken by Melba Levick. It looks as if it is just another coffee-table book, but the text ‘Territories of Play: A Short History of Japanese-style Gardens in North America’ by Kendall H. Brown (8-29) is the best history of Japanese gardens in the West. His analysis goes beyond aesthetics or horticulture and deals with many cultural issues including the identity of these gardens and the people involved. Anybody who is interested in transnational aspects of Japanese gardens would benefit from reading this book first. TW

Buchanan, William (1978) Mr Henry and Hornel visit Japan. Glasgow: Scottish Arts Council. TW

Buell, Raymond Leslie (1923) The Development of Anti-Japanese Agitation in the United States. Political Science Quarterly vol. 38, no. 1, March, 57-81. PS

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Burkman, Thomas W. ed. (1988) The Occupation of Japan: arts and culture: the proceedings of the sixth symposium, 18-19 October 1984. Norfolk, VA: The General Douglas MacArthur Foundation.

This collection of conference papers assesses the impact of the Occupation on media, literature and the arts including film, literature, drama and art. Among the papers, David Waterhouse’s ‘Japanese Art under the Occupation’, surveys important facts about art activities, with Appendices listing ‘Major Art Exhibitions during the Occupation Period’ and ‘Artists’ Organizations Formed during the Occupation’ that are not found elsewhere. It gives an idea of the policies on art and antiquities, and the development of new art and architecture under the guidance of the Arts and Monuments Division of the Civil Information and Education Section (CIE). The CIE and the occupation personnel’s special appreciation of Sôsaku Hanga (creative prints) is an important factor for American Japonisme. YK

Clark, John (2001) Japanese-British Exchanges in Art 1850s-1930s. Sydney: Power. TW

Coates, Wells (1931) Inspiration from Japan. The Architects’ Journal, vol. 74 November 4, 586.

Coates’ first published text recommending Japan as an inspirational source for modern architecture and interior design, in which he describes, although does not mention by name, the tokonoma alcove, the garden viewed from the ‘ceremonial’ window, frame construction, the unit value of the tatami, shôji, fusuma, and the complete lack of none structural ornamentation. This half-page text is accompanied by a full-page illustration ‘prepared by Wells Coates’ (p. 587) showing ‘typical details of the “first room” in a Japanese “dwelling of the first class”’ in plan and section that include the tokonoma and ‘ceremonial’ window. Perhaps not the most auspicious time to be writing of Japan following the Japanese army’s entry into Manchuria on 18 September 1931. AB


Coates, Wells (1932) Furniture Today – Furniture Tomorrow. The Architectural Review, vol. 72 July, 29-34.

Coates develops the concept of built-in furniture in his first article for The Architectural Review. The text is significant for two reasons: firstly for Coates’ reference to Japan, and secondly for the accompanying photographs of the interior design conversion of No, 1 Kensington Palace Gardens which demonstrate Coates’ Japanese inspiration by his use of shôji and design simplicity. In the text he refers to the home as ‘this dwelling-scene’ (p. 31) and describes a lifestyle that will no longer be encumbered by furniture. Coates believes our only furniture will be our personal belongings, and he cites Japan as an example of the existence of this mode of living and where this type of ‘dwelling-scene’ has been in use for many centuries. AB

Cohen, George Michael (1958) The Bird Paintings of Morris Graves. College Art Journal, vol. 18. No. 1, Autumn, 3-19. PS [Editing in progress]

Cohen, Warren I. (1992). East Asian art and American culture: a study in international relations. New York, Columbia University Press. SO

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The Committee of Hayashi Tadamasa Symposium (2007) Hayashi Tadamasa: Japonisme and Cultural Exchanges. Tokyo: Brücke. YS

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Conder, Josiah (1878) Notes on Japanese Architecture. Transactions of the RIBA, 1877-78, 179-192.

This is the first substantial text to be published in Britain on Japanese architecture. The paper was read, in his absence, before the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) on 4 March 1878 by T Roger Smith, a relation and former employer of Conder. The text was written when he had been in Japan for only a year and he acknowledges his limited study of the subject. Although Conder believed temples and tombs to be the more significant forms of architecture in Japan, he gives a detailed description of the Japanese house. He also describes tea houses, hotels, higher class dwellings, palaces and military buildings before discussing temples and tombs. It is significant that despite considering temples to be ‘far the most interesting and instructive’ (p. 186) Conder includes a detailed description of the Japanese house, which until this point, had been deemed to be of no interest. AB

Conder, Josiah (1886/7) Domestic Architecture in Japan. Transactions of the RIBA, vol. III new Series XXXI, 103-127.

Conder commences this detailed paper, which was read in his absence by his brother,

Roger T Conder, with a description of ordinary Japanese houses, and it is possible to

deduce his knowledge of the Japanese domestic dwelling has increased greatly in the

eight years he has lived in Japan, as he is able to articulate concisely the functions of

the building. Having described the basic elements of the Japanese house, including sleeping and eating arrangements, Conder defines other dwellings, including feudal and public entertainment houses, imperial and summer palaces. The detailed illustrations, in plan and elevation, further enhance understanding of the modular nature of this architecture and its relationship to the landscape, thus identifying key elements that will interest the next generation of architects. This paper was also published as a separate pamphlet: Conder, Josiah (1887) Domestic Architecture in Japan. London: RIBA. A measure to the extent of dissemination can be determined by the list of RIBA Transactions recipients on the back cover of this pamphlet. AB

Conder, Josiah (1891) The Flowers of Japan and the Art of Floral Arrangement. Tokyo: Hakubunsha. YS [Editing in progress]

Conder, Josiah (1893) Landscape gardening in Japan. Tokyo: Kelly & Walsh.

This is a key text for the understanding and appreciation of Japanese gardens by those in the West. Its Supplement contains many collotype photographs. A revised version was published in 1912. It is regarded even now as a classic of its kind in the West, but in Japan its reception history has been more ambivalent, as it is heavily dependent on Edo and early Meiji period garden design manuals. One of the motives for Conder, ‘the father of modern architecture in Japan’, to publish this book was to recommend that European and American readers might consider designing a Japanese garden. His arguments in persuading western readers to adopt a Japanese garden are based on purely aesthetic considerations underplaying the historical and culturally specific elements of a Japanese garden design. Thus Conder’s book could be regarded as one of the final products of the Japonisme of the Aesthetic Movement. TW

Cooke, Mervyn (2001) Britten and the Far East: Asian influences in the music of Benjamin Britten. Woodbridge: Boydell.

Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears made a brief, but highly significant visit to East Asia, including Japan, in 1956. This book provides a comprehensive narrative of the journey with the addition of particularly revealing diary entries. Britten’s open hostility towards Japan and the Japanese before the journey is noted and his change of mood after his visit is explored. Of particular importance was his attendance at a Noh theatre production of Sumidagawa, which later became the model for his composition Curlew River. A visit to the Imperial Household Agency to hear Gagaku likewise led to an interest in that musical form. The significance of both these visits on Britten’s compositional style is explored in musical terms and attention is drawn to his early style, which showed a degree of stylistic affinity, which enabled the subsequent East/West dialogue. RS

Cooper, Emmanuel (2003) Bernard Leach: Life & Work. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

In the late 1990s, Emmanuel Cooper finally took on the gargantuan task of writing the first biography of Bernard Leach, the most prominent English 20th century potter. Although published 24 years after his death, Leach was still a contentious figure and Cooper deftly sidestepped many of the controversial aspects of Leach’s legacy by concentrating on his inner life. Cooper’s support from and interviews with many family members result in a book very rich in documentary evidence. Meticulously researched and drawing heavily on Leach’s own extensive archive and diaries, Cooper constructs a compelling picture of an unreconstructed romantic in search of artistic and spiritual fulfilment. Cooper maintains a balance between perceptive insight and critical rigour, charting Leach’s life from his birth in colonial Hong Kong in 1887 and negotiating his way through an unhappy Victorian childhood, three failed marriages and constant financial problems, without a sense of prurience. Most importantly, he reveals the sources and ideas that informed his work over an extraordinarily long career which included some 20 years in Japan and the mentoring of a movement still in evidence today. JS

Cort, Louise A. (1979) Shigaraki: potter’s valley. Tokyo: Kodansha International. JS

Cram, Ralph Adams (1900) Japanese Domestic Interiors. The Architectural

Review, vol. 7, 9-15. Published as a chapter in:

Cram, Ralph Adams (1930) [1905] Impressions of Japanese architecture and the allied arts. 2nd ed. New York: The Japan Society.

The American architect and writer’s text is little changed in the second edition of the book except some less ornate illustrations were selected. This is an important text as demonstrated by Paul Nash in Room and Book (pp. 46-47) who considered it a new publication in 1932. Cram was concerned for the preservation of Japanese domestic architecture in the face of westernisation/modernisation. He cites the scholar, Okakura Kakuzô and an architect friend, Kashiwagi: ‘whose house is a faultless model of native architecture’ (p. 9), as men fighting this tide of change. Cram identifies and evocatively describes the four components of the Japanese interior, their qualities and treatment: the use of wood in its natural state; tinted plaster; woven straw of the tatami; rice paper used to cover shôji and a thicker version used for covering fusuma. The sentiments expressed are similar to those of Morse, believing that this serene living space could be an exemplar for the western house. AB

Crockett, Lucy Herndon (1949) Popcorn on the Ginza: An Informal Portrait of Postwar Japan. London: Victor Gollancz.

This is a memoir of an American Red Cross worker who stayed in Japan for eighteen months from 1945 to 47 which provides an account of her observations of the exotic Japan- a ‘world of a strange people, a beautiful land, and the extraordinary Alice-in-Wonderland’ (p. ix) with irresistible adorable ‘baby-san’ and children. This book gives valuable information on American personnel’s image of Japan during the Occupation period. It is characterised by a raw optimistic tone of excitement as she witnesses her own surprise at her change of feeling towards the Japanese from pre-war hatred to love. It presents an underlying mood for the post-war Japonisme, as well as an example of an American woman’s perspective on Japan. YK

De Baranano, Kosme & Bärmann, Matthias eds. (1997) Mark Tobey. Madrid: Museo Nacional de Arte Reina Sofia.

The importance of Mark Tobey’s career has often been overlooked, even in his native America, but this comprehensive book to some extent redresses that neglect. A thorough biography of this peripatetic artist provides a framework for essays on him, his work and his associates by both the exhibition curators and people who knew him. A short essay by Tobey himself, ‘Japanese Tradition and American Art’ reveals his thoughts on eastern and western art and especially the arts of Japan. In ‘Patterns of Nomadism: The Transcultural Art of Mark Tobey’, curator Matthias Bärmann explores the way Tobey was inspired by religion and culture, and places his work within the context of late 20th century American art and ‘national representation’. Colour reproductions of a broad selection of his work are enhanced by the addition of poems by Tobey and his friend John Cage. RS

De Gruchy, John Walter (2003) Orienting Arthur Waley: Japonism, Orientalism, and the Creation of Japanese Literature in English. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. PS [Editing in progress]


De Waal, Edmund (1997) St Ives Artists: Bernard Leach. London: Tate. JS

Delank, Claudia (1996) Das imaginäre Japan in der Kunst; "Japanbilder" vom Jugenstil bis zum Bauhaus (The Imaginary Japan in Art; the Image of Japan from Art Nouveau to the Bauhaus). Munich: iudicium. HC [Editing in progress]

Design for To-day. The Journal of the Design and Industries Association.

Although only published from May 1933 to February 1936 this journal is a useful source of information on Wells Coates’ work and his Japanese inspiration. ‘The English Living Room To-day’ (1933, vol. 1, pp. 12-13) illustrates 2 Devonshire Street, an interior design conversion by Coates with David Pleydell-Bouverie, which contained built-in furniture and shoji-like doors. ‘The Living Room Abroad To-day’ (pp. 14-15) includes a Japanese room described as having features to which modern interior architecture aspires, with the photograph provided by Coates and possibly the text. ‘Using Pictures’ by John Betjeman (1934, vol. 2, pp. 167-171) recommends hanging pictures ‘one at a time’ (p. 168). Accompanying photographs include a tokonoma alcove, captioned ‘The Japanese method of using pictures’ (p. 169) and the study in Coates’ Sunspan house as it appeared at the 1934 Ideal Home Exhibition, Olympia in which his own reference to the tokonoma is shown. Coates’ designs occur in advertisements including: Isokon and Handmade Gramophones. AB

Design: Isamu Noguchi and Isamu Kenmochi. (2007) New York: Five Ties Publishing in association with The Isamu Noguchi Foundation and Garden Museum. YS [Editing in progress]

Documents related to SCAP (Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers) at National Archives Records Administration at College Park, Maryland.

This is an important official record of all the activities of the Allied Powers during the Occupation period. Those of the Foreign Trade and Commerce Division and the Arts and Monuments Division of Civil Information and Education Section (CIE) are particularly useful for investigating all aspects of trade and arts underpinning Japonisme. YK

Dow, Arthur Wesley, (1899) Composition. A Series of Exercises Selected from a New System of Art Education by Arthur Wesley Dow. Boston: Joseph Moore Bowles. PS

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Dower, John W. (1986) War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Pantheon Books.

This seminal book provides the basic historical context of the Second World War followed by the American occupation of Japan, focusing on the role, which the official and popular racial rhetoric played. It offers an understanding of the rhetorical changes of American images of Japan from the pre-war to the post-war, but is also underpinned by a sense of continuity. It is interesting to note that the racialised stereotype images of the Japanese people, such as ‘childishness’ that were maintained in the post-war, but were transformed from an ‘irrational’ child to a ‘good pupil’ allowing the image to be contained in the new context of American paternalism. YK

Dresser, Christopher (1882) Japan, its architecture, art and art manufactures. London: Longmans, Green. TW

Duus, Masayo (2004) The Life of Isamu Noguchi: journey without borders. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Japanese edition (2000) Tokyo: Kôdansha.

The author, who has written widely on the subject of Japanese Americans, was prompted to research the life of Isamu Noguchi primarily out of curiosity as to his situation during World War II. The book paints a much broader picture of a notoriously secretive and mercurial subject. She charts his nomadic early life, and his attempts to find an identity between two cultures, which was ultimately manifested in his artwork. Although Noguchi’s father, the poet and writer Yone Noguchi (野口米次郎) was largely absent from his life, his inclusion in this biography begins the story with a Japanese expatriate narrative in America at the beginning of the 20th century. Noguchi’s own life ends with a degree of acceptance among the post-war economic boom in Japan. This book is an illuminating and often poignant study of Noguchi’s search for an identity during a troubled time for the two cultures to which he could lay claim. RS

Edwards, A. Trystan (1930) The Classic Architecture of the Orient. The

Architectural Review, vol. 67, 113-118.

Illustrated by drawings from Raymond McGrath’s brief history of Chinese architecture, architect and writer, Edwards, laments the penetration of western architecture into China and Japan, but finds similarities between the constructional methods of the East and the modern western use of steel and reinforced concrete. He suggests that the construction methods employed in the East for wooden buildings could be adopted in the West for the new materials of steel and concrete: ‘If those experimentalists who are so anxious to evolve a new style especially adapted to modern construction methods were to turn their eyes eastwards, they would find a more important source of inspiration than anywhere else’ (p. 118). Although Edwards appears better versed in Chinese than in Japanese architecture, the article is significant as an example of the identification and association of the modern frame construction with Japan and as an inferred inspirational source for modernist architecture. AB

Eisenstein, Sergei (1929) За кадром (sic. Off Screen). In: Kaufman, Naum Япоское Кино (Japanese Cinema). Moscow: Теакинопечать (Teakinopechat), 72-92. PS [Editing in progress]

Everett, Yayoi Uno and Frederick Lau eds. (2004) Locating East Asia in Western Art Music. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. YK [Editing in progress]

Evett, Eliza (1982) The Critical Reception of Japanese Art in Late Nineteenth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press. TW

Farrer, Anne ed. (2001) A Garden Bequest: Plants from Japan. London: Japan Society. YS [Editing in progress]


Felix (Feliks Jasieński) (1901) Manggha. Promenades à travers le monde, l’art et les idées. (Manggha: Wonders around the World, Art and Ideas). Paris & Warsaw: Librarie F. Vieweg & Librarie J. Fiszer. PS [Editing in progress]

Fine Art Society (1972) The Aesthetic Movement and the Cult of Japan. London: Fine Art Society. TW

Flint, Janet (1983) Provincetown Printers: a woodcut tradition (exhibition catalogue) Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Franks, Augustus (1906) Japanese Pottery. 2nd ed. London: Board of Education, South Kensington, Victoria and Albert Museum. JS [Editing in progress]

Fry, Roger (1910) Oriental Art. The Burlington Magazine, no. 85, April, pp.? JS

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Galeries nationales du Grand Palais (1988) Le Japonisme. Paris: Galeries nationales du Grand Palais (Japanese 1988 edition by National Museum of Western Art). TW

Giese, Lucretia H. (1983) Mark Tobey’s 1939 Murals for the John A. Baillargoens: A Transition. Archives of American Art Journal, vol. 23, no. 2, 3-12. PS

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Grew, Joseph C. (1944) Ten Years in Japan: A Contemporary Record drawn from the Diaries and Private and Official Papers of Joseph C. Grew, United States Ambassador to Japan, 1932-1942. Hammond, Hammond: London.

A fascinating account of the deteriorating political relationship between Japan and the United States leading up to the bombing of Pearl Harbour on 7 December 1941. Grew’s text is drawn from three sources: his diaries, personal and official correspondence, and dispatches to the State Department. Written chronologically in diary format, this insightful work, describes US diplomacy against a backdrop of state and social occasions, which include the Imperial Duck Hunt, and the baseball star, Babe Ruth’s visit to Japan. Grew also discusses Japan’s relationship with other countries, in particular: Russia, Italy, Germany and Britain, and on 27 January 1941 receives a warning for a possible ‘surprise mass attack on Pearl Harbour’ (p. 318). Born in 1880, this was not Grew’s first contact with Japan, following graduation from Harvard in 1902 he travelled to Europe and East Asia, resulting in the publication of Sport and Travel in the Far East (1910). AB

Guth, Christine (2004) Longfellow’s Tattoos: tourism, collecting and Japan. Seattle: University of Washington Press. TW

Haneda, Sei (1973) Teshigawara Sôfu Den (Biography of Teshigawara Sofu). Tokyo: Hochiki Shuppan. YS [Editing in progress]

Harada, Jirô (1923) Decoration in the Tokonoma. The Studio, vol. 86, 141-145.

This evocative article on the tokonoma alcove would have done much to inspire the British reader of 1923 with modernist leanings. A detailed description is given of the physical dimensions, the decoration, the role and purpose of the tokonoma. The text is generously illustrated with three pages of photographs demonstrating various ways of decorating this recess. Described as: ‘The triumph of the traditional style of home architecture in Nippon’ (p. 141) much emphasis is placed on the simplicity of the decoration. Harada discusses the significance of the kakemono or hanging scroll, its selection and storage; the role of ikebana, the importance and the choice of the flower arrangement. He advises on the selection of objects, counselling against symmetry. Harada portrays a room of calm aesthetic restraint, where the few objects that are displayed have been chosen with the utmost care to reflect either the season or to please a guest. AB

Harada, Jirô (1928) The Gardens of Japan. London: Studio.

This book was published in the wake of a fashion for creating Japanese gardens in early 20th century Britain. It became a highly influential publication in the West, though not so in Japan itself. It shares this fate with the other significant book on Japanese garden in English by Josiah Conder, Landscape gardening in Japan. However, unlike Conder’s book it emphasises the spiritual element of the Japanese garden. Katahira Miyuki has pointed out the impact of Okakura Tenshin’s The Book of Tea (1906) on Harada, particularly the importance of tea ceremony and Zen for the development of the Japanese garden, and also that unlike Conder’s illustrations, Harada’s photographs of the gardens often emphasise the view from the interior of the house, which he argues was the primary site for the appreciation of most Japanese gardens. TW

Harada, Jirô (1936) The Lesson of Japanese Architecture. London: Studio.

The intentions of this book are clearly stated: it is not to be a comprehensive history but, by the use of photographs, is to offer a vision of the current state of Japanese architecture as a potential exemplar for the solution of a worldwide problem, that of modern housing needs. An analysis of the benefits to be gained from a study of Japanese architecture are clearly defined by the editor, C G Holme, in the introduction. Harada gives an historical perspective and describes the present day Japanese house with detailed illustrations. He believes that which the Western architect seeks is to be found in Japanese architecture. The raison d’être of this somewhat jingoistic text is better understood when one is aware of the Japanese Government’s intention, during the mid 1930s, to promote a new Japonisme in the West. AB

Harada, Jirô (1938) A glimpse of Japanese ideals. Tokyo: Kokusai Bunka

Shinkokai.

This is a collection of lectures given by Harada on Japanese art and culture at American universities and art museums during the academic year 1935/36. Written with rather a nationalistic bias, subjects covered include: Japanese art, archaeology, architecture, gardens, cha-no-yu, lacquer, and Noh theatre. Although the text of chapter 4 ‘Japanese Architecture’, is mainly taken from The Lesson of Japanese Architecture (1936), there is no longer desire to educate the western architect to Japanese ways, but the emphasis is now on the purity of Japanese architecture that is in danger of being tainted by the West. In his foreword Count Kabayama Aisuke promotes the notion of harmony between nations through a greater cultural understanding. This seems an extraordinary view to express in 1937, the year Japan declared war on China. However Harada’s jingoistic sentiments did not prevent the publication receiving a short but favourable review by The Studio in August 1938. AB

Harootunian, Harry D. (2001) Overcome by Modernity; History, Culture, and Community in Interwar Japan. Princeton: Princeton University. HC

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Hawkins, Robert B. (1957) Contemporary Art and the Orient. College Art Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, Winter, 118-131. PS [Editing in progress]

Hayward, Mary Ellen (1979) The Influence of the Classical Oriental Tradition on American Painting. Winterthur Portfolio vol. 14, no. 2, Summer, 107-142. PS

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Helfrich, Kurt G. F. and Whitaker, William eds. (2006) Crafting a modern world : the architecture and design of Antonin and Noemi Raymond. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. HC & YS [Editing in progress]

Helphand, Kenneth I. (2006) Defiant Gardens: Making Gardens in Wartime. San Antonio: Trinity University Press

This book examines case studies of gardens created during war times in the 20th century. In chapter four the author examines ‘Barbed-Wire Gardens’ made by allied prisoners of war and civilian internees in Europe and Asia in the World Wars. In the next chapter he investigates the opposing phenomena of ‘Stone Gardens’ created by Japanese-Americans in their internment camps. Helphand has unearthed a significant number of such gardens, which ranges from a garden, which is not more than an allotment or a pond garden complete with miniature bridges and buildings and even toy ships to considerably grander gardens incorporating large rocks. TW

Herrigel, Eugen (1948) Zen in der Kunst des Bogenschiessens (Zen in the Art of Archery). Muenchen-Planegg: Otto Wilhelm Barth-Verlag. PS [Editing in progress]

Hirayama, Hina (1993) Curious Merchandise: Bunkio Matsuki’s Japanese Department. Essex Institute historical collections, vol. 129, 216-231. Sharf, Frederic A. & Hirayama, Hina compileds. (1993) A Partical List of Trade Catalogue and Advertising Literature Offered by Bikio Matsuki. Essex Institute historical Collections, vol. 129, 232-240. SO [Editing in progress]

Hirobe, Izumi (2002) Japanese Pride, American Prejudice: Modifying the Exclusion Clause of the 1924 Act. Stanford: Stanford University Press. PS [Editing in progress]

Hobson, Robert L. (1924) A Guide to the Pottery and Porcelain of the Far East in the Department of Ceramics & Ethnography. London: British Museum. JS

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Holme, Charles (1901) The Potter’s Art - Object Lessons From The Far East. The Studio, vol. 23, no. 103, 48-57.

Charles Holme was the first 20th century English critic to offer historical oriental pottery as a model for contemporary individual artistic ceramic practice. His article ‘The Potter’s Art - Object Lessons from the Far East’, was effectively a proto-manifesto for the nascent discipline of studio pottery, written almost two decades before Bernard Leach returned to Britain. In this seminal ten page article, Holme rejected the 19th century emphasis on decoration in English pottery, arguing instead for a new appreciation based on craft practice and the use of natural material as evidenced in the peasant cultures, and in particular pottery, from China, Korea and Japan. However, Holme saw Japan, rather than China or Korea, as best maintaining the production of traditional pottery through demand for the highly aestheticised tea ceremony; as a result Japan became his model for western practice. The article also acknowledged the importance of the French potters Chaplet, Delaherche and Bigot and predated Modernist acclaim for Sung pottery by a decade. JS

Holme, Charles (1909) The Cha-No-Yu Pottery of Japan. The Studio, vol. 46, 29-45. JS [Editing in progress]

Honey, William B. (1945) The Ceramic Art of China and Other Countries of the Far East. London: Faber & Faber. JS

Horner, Libby (2006) Brangwyn and the Japanese Connection. Journal of the Decorative Arts Society 1850 to the Present, vol. 26, 2002, pp. 73-83. SO

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Hosley, William (1990) The Japan Idea: Art and Life in Victorian America. Hartford, Connecticut: Wadsworth Atheneum. TW

Howorth-Booth, Mark (2005) E. McKnight Kauffer. London: V&A. YS

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Hume, Bill (1953) Babysan: A Private Look at the Japanese Occupation. Columbia, MO: American Press.

This book is a collection of cartoons, which appeared in Navy Times and became a best seller. Hume, who was a sailor stationed in Japan in 1951, created a cartoon character ‘babysan’ out of such ‘incongruous antics as Japanese jitterbugging, American as apple pie, yet oriental as a rice paddy’ (p. 6). It portrays American servicemen’s encounter with Japanese things, customs and life, and the feminised image of Japan through a peculiar, at times cheeky but lovable ‘babysan’. This book can also be read as an example of so-called ‘Asian fetish’ (non-Asian males preference of Asian women), which informs the racialised and sexually charged aspect of Japonisme. YK

Iinuma, Nobuko (1993) Takamine Jôkichi to Sono Tsuma (Takamine Jôkichi and His Wife), Tokyo. Shin Jinbutsu Ôraisha. SO [Editing in progress]

(c. 1936) Illustrated Catalogue of a Special Loan Exhibition of Art Treasures from Japan: held in conjunction with the Tercentenary celebration of Harvard University, September-October, 1936. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. SO [Editing in progress]

Inaga, Shigemi (1999) Kaiga no Tôhô: orientarizumu kara japonisumu (L’Orient de la peinture: de l’orientalisme au Japonisme). Nagoya: Nagoya Daigaku Shuppankai. TW

Isozaki, Arata (2005) Japan-Ness in Architecture. Rhode Island: MIT. HC [Editing in progress]

Itoh, Keiko (2001) The Japanese community in Pre-War Britain. From integration to disintegration. Richmond: Curzon. SO [Editing in progress]

Izuhara, Eiichi (1989) Nihon no Dezain Undô (Design Movement in Japan). Tokyo: Perican-sha. YS [Editing in progress]

Izutsu Akio (1992) The Bauhaus. A Japanese Perspective and A Profile of Hans and Florence Schust Knoll. Tokyo: Kajima Institute. HC [Editing in progress]

Javid, Christine ed. (2006) Color Woodcut International: Japan, Britain and America in the early Twentieth Century. Madison, WI: Chazen Museum of Art, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

This catalogue, which accompanied the exhibition at Chazen Museum of Art, is a valuable overview of the internationalisation of Japanese woodcut in the early 20th century. It focuses on three countries, Japan, America and Britain, with an essay devoted to each country and an exploration of the cross-cultural impact, which fuelled a fashion for woodcut. The comparison between the impact of Japanese woodblock in the UK and the USA is particularly valuable in its focus on key influential people such as Frank Morley Fletcher, Urushibara Yoshijirô (Mokûchu) and Gustave Baumann. The essays, supported by numerous colour illustrations give a very clear analysis of this period of cultural exchange, which extended the fascination with Japanese print through the war to the latter years of the 20th century. RS

Japan Industrial Design Promotion Organization (2007) Design Japan: 50 creative years with the Good Design Awards. Tokyo: Stone Bridge Press. YS

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The Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA)

The RIBAJ developed in 1893 from two separate RIBA publications: Proceedings and Transactions. In 1918 G Northover was editor; on his retirement in 1921, the librarian, Rudolf Dircks, became editor and Edward Carter became librarian-editor when Dircks retired in 1930. Under Carter’s editorship the journal underwent major modernisation in November 1931, perhaps to bring it more in line with the stylish Architectural Review. Volume 39 was printed on superior quality paper; the layout and typeface were improved by Stanley Morison, and Eric Gill designed a new badge. The changed format included a two page editorial entitled ‘Journal’ and a clearly defined ‘Accessions to the Library’ and a ‘Review of Periodicals’ section which continued to evolve and expand until the outbreak of war in 1939. In 1933 a technical editor, E L Bird, was appointed thus enabling technical discussion on contemporary building, which had until this point, been addressed superficially or avoided. AB

Kauffer, E. McKnight (1924) The Art of the Poster: its origin, evolution & purpose. London: Cecil Palmer. YS [Editing in progress]

Kawakita, Michiaki (1969) Kenzo Okada, Painter. In: Yamada Chisaburô F. ed. (1976) Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. London. Paris & Tokyo: Kodansha International, 300-303. PS [Editing in progress]

Kawakita, Renshichirô & Takase, Yûtarô (1931) Reimondo no ie (Raymond’s Residence), Tokyo: Kawakita Renshichirô. HC [Editing in progress]

Keene, Donald (1969) ‘Japanese Aesthetics’, Philosophy East and West. YS

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Keene, Donald (1971) The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95 and Japanese Culture. In: Shively, Donald H. ed. Tradition and modernization in Japanese culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press. YS [Editing in progress]

Kenmochi, Isamu (1955) Japanese Modern or Japonica Style. Kogei News, vol. 22, no.9. YS [Editing in progress]

Kenmochi Isamu no Sekai (1975) 5 volumes. Tokyo: Kawade Shobo. YS

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Kikuchi, Yuko (2004) Japanese Modernisation and Mingei Theory: Cultural Nationalism and Oriental Orientalism. London: Routledge/Curzon.

Kikuchi, Yuko ed. (2007) Refracted Modernity: visual culture and identity in colonial Taiwan. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Kikuchi, Yuko & Watanabe, Toshio (1997) Ruskin in Japan 1890-1940: Nature for Art, Art for Life. Tokyo: Cogito.

Kikuchi, Yuko and Toshio Watanabe (2002) ‘The British Discovery of Japanese Art’. In: G. Daniels & C. Tsuzuki (eds.) The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations 1600-2000, vol.5, Social and Cultural Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke and New York, 2002, 146-170 (Japanese edition 2001).

Klein, Christina (2003) Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945-1961. Berkeley: University of California Press.

This book studies the post-war American middlebrow intellectuals’ interest in Asia through popular novels, musicals, films and magazines such as Reader’s Digest and the Saturday Review. Klein coined the idea of ‘Cold War Orientalism’ embedded in cultural policies for the U.S.-Asian integration according to American expansionism during the Cold War. She argues that this Cold War American Orientalism, which proclaims the American ideal that embraces racial equality, tolerance, inclusiveness and ethnic diversity as part of America’s own identity, does not fit into Said’s model of Orientalism. This book provides a large picture of post-war American Orientalism with which Japonisme is closely related. YK

Kôgei (Crafts 1931-1951) and Mingei (1939-present, no publication during 1946-48). YK [Editing in progress]

Kôgei Nyûsu (Kôgei News 1932-1949/Industrial Art News, 1950-1973). YK &YS

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Koizumi, Kazuko ed. (1999) Senryôgun Jyûtaku no Kiroku (The Record of the Occupation Forces’ Dependents Housing). Jô (vol. 1), Ge (vol. 2). Tokyo: Sumai no Toshokan Shuppankyoku.

The General Headquarters (GHQ) of Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) built 16,000 houses for US personnel and dependent families stationed in Japan and commissioned the Japanese construction companies and Japanese designers of Industrial Arts Research Institute (IARI) to design all the furniture and household and kitchen utensils used in these houses. During this process Japanese designers and policy makers learned about American lifestyle, design and taste under the GHQ designers, while at the same time the GHQ’s taste was also compromised with locally available materials, craftsmanship and Japanese aesthetic. This negotiated ‘hybrid’ design during the Occupation period deserves examination in relation to the development of Japonisme in the 1950s. YK

Kokusai Bunka Shinkô Kai ed. (1937) Boston Ninppon Ko-bijyutsu Tenrankai Hôkoku-sho [Report on the Special loan exhibition of art treasures from Japan, Museum of Fine Art, Boston]. Tokyo: Kokusai Bunka Shinko Kai. SO

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Kolibal, Stanislav ed (2000) Bedřich Feuerstein. Mezi domovem a svetem (Bedřich Fruerstein, Between the Home and the World). Prague: Arbor vitae. HC [Editing in progress]

Ko Yamanaka Sadajirô-ô Den Hensankai (1939) Yamanaka Sadajirô den. Ôsaka, Ko Yamanaka Sadajirô-ô Den Hensankai. SO [Editing in progress]

Kuck, Lorraine (1935) One Hundred Kyoto Gardens. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. TW

Kuck, Lorraine (1940) The Art of Japanese Gardens. New York: John Day. TW

Kuck, Lorraine (1957) Japanese Gardens: Catalogue of an Exhibition from Japan. Eugene: University of Oregon. TW

Kuck, Lorraine (1968) The World of the Japanese Garden: from Chinese origins to modern landscape art. New York: Walker/Weatherhill. TW

Kurosaki, Masao (2006) Cha-no-hon: Nani ga “wa” de naika. Tokyo: Tetsugaku Shobo. YS [Editing in progress]

Kuwahara, Noriko (2006) Onchi Koshiro's 'Portrait of Hagiwara Sakutaro': western collectors of Sosaku Hanga during the allied occupation. Bulletin of the Study on Philosophy and History of Art in University of Tsukuba 23. SO

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Lachman, Charles (1992) “The Image Made by Chance” in China and the West: Ink Wang Meets Jackson Pollock’s Mother. The Art Bulletin, vol. 74, no. 3, September, 499-510. PS [Editing in progress]

Lancaster, Clay (1963) The Japanese Influence in America, New York: Walton Rawls. TW

Lancaster, Clay (1969) Synthesis: The Artistic Theory of Fenollosa and Dow. Art Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, Spring, 286-287. PS [Editing in progress]


Lancaster, Osbert (1936) The Glamorous East: some Oriental episodes in the

history of English taste. The Architectural Review, vol. 79, 101-106.

Published in response to a predicted ‘Chinese Vogue in interior decoration’ (p. 101) precipitated by the International Exhibition of Chinese Art which opened at the Royal Academy on 28 November 1935, this article, by Lancaster, the satirical writer and author of From Pillar to Post (1938) and Home Sweet Home (1939), is a journey through all that is perceived to be bad in Chinoiserie and later Victorian eclectic taste. Nevertheless, amid the disparaging remarks is the suggestion that with a greater comprehension of Oriental philosophy and aesthetics it has been possible to understand the value placed on extreme simplicity by the Chinese and Japanese and therefore ‘For the first time those who were working for a simplified and rational style in architecture and decoration could regard the Far Eastern influence as a possible ally’ (p. 106). The significance of the text lies in this identification of modern architectural inspiration. AB

Lawton, Thomas (1995) Yamanaka Sadajirô : Advocate for Asian Art. Orientations 26. SO [Editing in progress]

Leach, Bernard (1928) A Potter’s Outlook. London: New Handworker’s Gallery.

Leach’s first significant UK publication was an attempt to reconcile the creative and financial conflicts of his aspirations after his first eight years as a potter in England. This ten page pamphlet was published a year after a failed exhibition in which Leach attempted to launch a range of practical, slip trailed earthenware pottery which was held at the same time as an exhibition of his more prestigious stoneware work. The essay reflects on the ambiguous role of the artist craftsmen in the West and the production of useful pottery which was aligned neither to the world of art nor to that of trade. Leach was struggling at this time to establish his career in England and undoubtedly felt the loss of support from his intellectual and artistic friends in the privileged Shirakaba (White Birch Society) in Japan. Although informed by Arts and Crafts values, Leach’s pottery was stylistically at odds with traditional English crafts, conceptually opposed to the avant-garde tendencies of William Staite Murray’s work with its ideas of abstraction, and highly impractical in terms of industrial collaboration. A Potter’s Outlook is a strident attack on industrial values and production, and the world of connoisseurship and collecting, promoting instead the system of semi-industrialised, hand crafted production that operated in Japan. With its mix of romantic aspirations and harsh criticism this essay established the tone for Leach’s later writings. While Leach would inspire a generation of potters with his romanticised view of studio pottery, he equally alienated others. JS

Leach, Bernard (1931) Kenkichi Tomimoto’s Stoneware, Apollo, vol. 13, no. 77, May, pp.? JS

Leach, Bernard (1931) Leach and Tomimoto West and East, The Studio, vol. 101, no. 458 May, 346-349. JS

Leach, Bernard (1940) A Potter’s Book. London: Faber & Faber. JS

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Leach, Bernard (1960) A potter in Japan, 1952-1954. London: Faber & Faber. JS

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Leach, Bernard (1975) Hamada: Potter. Tokyo, New York & San Francisco: Kodansha International.

Transcribed and simultaneously translated from conversations between Bernard Leach and Hamada over three months in a Japanese hotel room in 1973, Hamada is one of the most informative books on the relationship between Japanese and English 20th century studio pottery. The combination of archival correspondence and personal contributions ranging from prominent contemporaries such as American writer Henry Bergen and English potter Michael Cardew enrich and extend the usual biographical format. Equally, a further 80 black and white photographs of Hamada’s life, photographs of his pots and personal sketches provide rich visual support. But it is the ease and directness of simple conversation between two of the most important figures in 20th century pottery, recorded over 120 pages, that provides a rare insight into the emergence and development of 20th studio pottery. Simply transcribed and free of the proselytising tone that marks many folk craft publications, Hamada is a moving and inspirational account of a much maligned artistic movement. JS

Leach, Bernard (1978) Beyond East And West: Memoirs, Portraits and Essays. London: Faber & Faber.

The fourth and final Faber & Faber book by Bernard Leach, Beyond East & West was published when Leach was aged 91, six years after he had stopped potting due to failing health. This reflective and meandering book has a less proselytising tone than much of Leach’s earlier writing, emphasising his personal life and family and friends over the details of his career. Mixing recollections from England, Japan and China, extracts from his extensive diaries and selected writing from friends such as Yanagi Sôetsu and Katherine Pleydell-Bouverie, Beyond East and West has the feeling of a person making peace with the world at the end of a life full of vicissitudes. Frustration at the lack of factual detail in the book is balanced by fascinating insights into these pioneering times and accounts of his relationships with people such as Tomimoto, who along with Leach, shaped the studio pottery movement. Illustrations of Leach’s drawings are prioritised over his pots but only a tantalisingly small number of photographs from these epoch shaping times are included. Beyond East and West was published in the year following his retrospective at the Victoria & Albert Museum but ironically Leach’s reputation in Britain was already in decline, an impression enhanced by the nostalgic tone of the book which makes it feel even more dated. JS

Life (1964) Special Issue: Japan, September 11.

This issue was published just before the Tokyo Olympic games to introduce newly transformed post-war Japan as a friendly, peaceful, nature loving country, which retains curiously interesting traditional culture. As the eye-catching cover photograph of a geisha in Kyoto doing bowling symbolises, it features Americanised image of Japan. The emperor is portrayed as ‘an easygoing chap’ and a family man of the amicable nation. It also emphasises the interdependence between the USA and Japan with important economic and political ties to be developed. It represents the trend in popular media and its generating taste and interest for Japan in the 1960s. YK

Lyford, Amy (2003) Noguchi, Sculptural Abstraction and the Politics of Japanese Internment. The Art Bulletin, vol. 85, no. 1, March, 137-151. PS [Editing in progress]

MacLean, J. Arthur & Blair, Dorothy (1930) Ten Print Makers of the Last Decade. The American Magazine of Art, vol. 21, 443-449. SO [Editing in progress]

McClatchy, V.S. (1929) Japanese-American Relations and the Second Generation. Pacific Affairs, vol. 2, no. 4, April, 200-203. PS [Editing in progress]

McGrath, Raymond (1934) Twentieth Century Houses. London: Faber & Faber.

The relevance of this book occurs in several areas as McGrath not only describes the work of Wells Coates and the second architect member of Unit One, Colin Lucas, but also includes nine examples of modern Japanese architecture. This first book by McGrath was one of the most reviewed and discussed books in the architectural press during the 1930s. McGrath, unable to find contemporary examples of his particular interest, Chinese architecture, but anxious to include eastern architecture, selected the work of Antonin Raymond, Horiguchi Sutemi, Yamada Mamoru, and Tsuchiura Kameki. Although it would appear Japan is featured by default, McGrath writes eloquently and evocatively on the architecture of Japan. To him inspiration from Japan is a natural coming together of East and West and he is quick to note the Japanese inspiration in the work of the modernist architects. AB

McNeil, Peter (1992) Myth of Modernism. Japanese Architecture, Interior Design and the West, c. 1920-1940. Journal of Design History, Vol. 5, No. 4, 281 – 294. HC [Editing in progress]

Maatta, Jennifer L. (2000) Japanese and Chinese Influences on Art Deco Furniture (paper presented to the conference 'East Meets West' held at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia). PS [Editing in progress]

Mabuchi, Akiko (1997) Japonisumu: gensô no Nihon (Japonisme: Representation et Imaginaires des Europeens). Tokyo: Brucke. TW

March, Benjamin (1929) China and Japan in our museums. New York: American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations. SO [Editing in progress]

Marchetti, Gina (1993) Romance and the ‘Yellow Peril’. Berkeley: University of California Press.

This book analyses Hollywood films produced between 1915 and 1986, which dealt with Asia and Asians. Marchetti analyses these Hollywood films as discourse involving race and sex, following her categorisation of narrative patterns such as rape, salvation, sacrifice, tragic love, transcendent romances and assimilation. Marchetti argues that these discourses are related to fear backed by the notion of ‘yellow peril’ and the sexual fantasy of miscegenation. She also points to the relational position of these discourses with the question and maintenance of the identity of white Anglo-Saxon Caucasian Protestant Americans. This provides understanding of American popular representation of the Japanese people and culture underlying the context of the American Japonisme. YK

Marriot, Charles (1923) Anglo-Japanese Pottery, The Times, November 1, 12.

This modest review of Hamada’s second exhibition in Paterson’s Gallery in 1923 by Charles Marriot, the art critic of The Times, has significance as the first review of a studio pottery exhibition in a British national broadsheet newspaper. Although the article is just under 200 words, Marriot identified some of the major themes of the emerging studio pottery movement commenting on how Hamada designed and made his work, combined Chinese, Korean and English attributes and used local materials. Marriot essentially saw pottery at this stage as an Arts and Craft activity. Significantly, he would go on to discuss it within the emerging Modernist movement of abstract art in a further 40 reviews of studio pottery exhibitions in The Times over the next 13 years. Although an inauspicious beginning, Marriot helped define the identity of studio pottery to the British public through explaining its synthesis of the Orient and Occident and its characteristic blending of Chinese, Japanese and Korean stoneware combined with vernacular English earthenware. JS

Mayuyama Junkichi, ed. (1976) Ryusen Shuho (The Splendid Assemblage by Mayuyama & Co.). 2 vols. Tokyo: Mayuyama & Co.

Mayuyama Junkichi (1988) Bijyutu-sho no Yorokobi (The Joy of an Art Dealer). Tokyo: Mayuyama Junkichi. SO [Editing in progress]

Meech, Julia (2001) Frank Lloyd Wright and the art of Japan: the architect's other passion. New York: Japan Society & Harry N. Abrams.

Julia Meech’s book is a masterful portrait of Frank Lloyd Wright, a famously controversial character. It is woven through with a narrative of his contact with the world of the Japanese print, which serves to highlight the conflict inherent in his dual role as collector and dealer and there is a refreshing honesty in her evaluation of Wright’s business methods. She places him in the context of dealers and collectors of the time, with much fascinating detail about their interaction. It is particularly valuable as an insight into the history of the collecting of Japanese prints in the mid-western United States at the time. Illustrations of prints, which Wright owned and sold as well as prints and objects, which remain in the collection of The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation help to illuminate the character of his purchases. Photographs of his finished buildings with Japanese art objects as an intrinsic part of the scheme show the importance he gave to the Japanese aesthetic, though he was often reluctant to admit it. This book was awarded the Sotheby's Book Prize given by the Frick's Center for the History of Collecting in America in December 2009. RS

Meech-Pekarik, Julia & Weisberg, Gabriel (1990) Japonisme Comes to America: the Japanese impact on the graphic arts 1876-1925. New York: Abrams. PS

[Editing in progress]

Mirviss, John B. & Newland, Amy Reigle et al. (2004) Printed to Perfection: Twentieth-century Japanese prints from the Robert O. Muller Collection. Washington D. C.: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. SO [Editing in progress]

Moeran, Brian (1997) Folk Art Potters of Japan: Beyond an Anthropology of Aesthetics. Richmond: Curzon.

Ostensibly an anthropological study of the pottery community Sarayama in Japan which has produced Onta craft pottery over the last 250 years, Moeran extends the remit of his book to analyse and discuss the appreciation of folk craft or Mingei in Japan and the West. Based on his doctoral research and 1984 book Lost Innocence: Folk Craft Potters of Onta, Japan, Moeran uses anthropological methodology to discuss the economic, social and communal aspects of pottery production in this village, but acknowledges that aesthetics and interpretation play as important a part in the interpretation of their work as market factors. As a result, Moeran discusses the concept of Mingei that provides the rationale for the production of this pottery. In this context, he extends his sphere of enquiry to examine Yanagi’s theories of Mingei, his debt to the English Arts and Crafts movement and the ideas of William Morris, the patronage and the mechanics of the contemporary market for Japanese art pottery, and wider issues of Japanese cultural identity and Orientalism. JS

Moffatt, Frederick C. (1976) Arthur Wesley Dow and the Ipswich School of Art. The New England Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 3, September, 339-355. PS

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Mori, Hitoshi ed. (2005) Japanîzu Modan: Kenmochi Isamu to sono Sekai (Japanese Modern: Retrospective Kenmochi Isamu). Tokyo: Kokusho Kankôkai. YS

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Morse, Edward S. (1961) [1886] Japanese Homes and their Surroundings. New York: Dover.

This text by Morse, who originally travelled to Tokyo in 1877 to lecture on zoology at the Imperial University, became a seminal work on Japanese domestic architecture, particularly in America. Morse was persuaded to leave his study of brachiopods to concentrate on research he had begun on the traditional Japanese home, which due to westernisation/modernisation was drastically changing and feared would soon be lost. This is a detailed account of the various house types, their construction, interior design, function and gardens. For Morse, despite any western thoughts on the shortcomings in either plan or construction, the Japanese house fits the purpose for which it was intended. This text is possibly the first example of the traditional Japanese dwelling being offered as an exemplar to the West for an alternative mode of living. Charles Rennie Mackintosh owned a copy, and Morse’s term ‘ceremonial window’ was used by Wells Coates and A L Sadler. AB

Munroe, Alexandra & Nakagawa, Ikuyo eds. (2009) The Third Mind: American Artists Contemplate Asia, 1860-1989 (exhibition catalogue). New York: Guggenheim Museum. PS [Editing in progress]

Murakata, Akiko (1980) Nichibi Hôshi -Matsuki Bunkiô- no Koto (A Study on Nichibi Houshi, Matsuki Bunkio). Ukiyo-e art, no. 66, 3-17. SO [Editing in progress]

National Gallery of Art, Washington, et al. (1953) Exhibition of Japanese painting and sculpture sponsored by the Government of Japan. National Gallery of Art, Washington; the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; the Art Institute of Chicago; Seattle Art Museum, Seattle. N.p.: n.d. SO

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Nash, Paul (1932) Room and Book. London: Soncino Press.

A small volume divided into two parts as the title suggests. The text was written in conjunction with an exhibition of the same name, and in the hope of raising public awareness of the role and value of the arts and aesthetics in every day life. Nash champions the cause of contemporary artists and designers by questioning the lack of recognition by both nation and industry. The significance of this text lies in the citing of Wells Coates as an important contributor to the English modern movement and his Japanese inspiration. Nash also comments on Ralph Adams Cram’s text on Japanese architecture and discusses the relationship between the Japanese interior and a modern interior, quoting Coates and Herbert Read. In part two, Book, we become aware of Nash’s detailed knowledge of Japanese stencils. AB

The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto (2003) Johannes Itten: Zokei Geijutsu heno Michi. Kyoto: The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto. YS

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Nihon Seisansei Shinbun (Japan Productivity News)

This is a weekly newspaper published by Japan Productivity Center (JPC) during 1956-1982. It covers all the activities of JPC including visits by designers, merchandisers and consultants to and from the USA, and their reports. It informs the study of Japonisme from the point of view of business management in relation to manufacturing and design of products. YK

Nish, Ian (1982) Anglo-Japanese Alienation, 1919-1952. Papers for the Anglo-Japanese Conference on the History of the Second World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PS [Editing in progress]

Nute, Kevin (1993) Frank Lloyd Wright and Japan: the role of traditional Japanese art and architecture in the work of Frank Lloyd Wright. London & New York: Routledge. AB [Editing in progress]

Oguma, Sachiko (2007) Yamanaka and Company in the United States of America, PhD thesis, University of Tsukuba.

Okakura, Kakuzô (1903) The Ideals of the East with a Special Reference to the Art of Japan London: John Murray. PS [Editing in progress]

Okakura, Kakuzô (1905) The Awakening of Japan New York; The Century Company, London: John Murray. PS [Editing in progress]

Okakura, Kakuzô, (1906) The Book of Tea. London: Putnam. HC [special project]

[Editing in progress]

Okihiro, Gary (1991) Cane Fires: The Anti-Japanese Movement in Hawaii 1865-1945. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. PS [Editing in progress]

Oshikawa, Josui & Gorham, Hazel H. (1947) Manual of Japanese Flower Arrangement. Tokyo: Cosmo.

This collaboration between the founder of the modern school of flower arrangement, Shôfûryû, Oshikawa Josui and Hazel Gorham, an American, was produced under the auspices of the Cultural Exchange Club; an earlier edition (c1936) was published by Nippon Bunka Renmei. Amply illustrated with line drawings, delicately coloured full-page sketches and photographs, the text places contemporary Japanese flower arrangement within an historic context whilst explaining the basic principles of the art. ‘Printed in Occupied Japan’ it was hoped this book would ‘become a prototype for the contact of their [the authors] respective countries’ (p. viii). A six-part Correspondence course in Japanese flower arrangement by Oshikawa and Gorham was published in 1940, and Gorham also wrote books on Japanese tray gardens, netsuke and pottery. Hazel Gorham was married to the American engineer, William R. Gorham, who worked in Japan from 1918, becoming a naturalised Japanese citizen in 1941 to avoid deportation. AB

Oshima, Ken T. (2010) International Architecture in Interwar Japan: Constructing Kakusai Kenchiku. Seattle, MA: University of Washington Press. AB

Ôshima, Seiji (1980) Japonisumu: Inshôha to ukiyoe no shûhen (Japonisme). Tokyo. TW

Pacific Stars and Stripes (1945-99; Stars and Stripes 1999- )

This is a daily newspaper published by the US Armed Forces of the Pacific Command. It is particularly interesting to investigate the Japanese arts and culture featured in this paper, and the cultural and commercial activities organised by the Allied Powers during the Occupation period to inform aspects of American Japonisme within Japan. YK

Platt, John (1938) Colour Woodcuts: a book of reproductions and a handbook of method. London: Pitman. RS [Editing in progress]

Pulos, Arthur J. (1988) The American Design Adventure: 1940-1975. Cambridge, MA & London: MIT Press.

This book surveys the evolution of industrial design in the USA during the 1940s through to the 70s, featuring modern masterpieces of designed products, American aesthetic and social ideals, design education, foreign relations and marketing. It provides the general context of the development of American design and its relation with American cultural identity in the world. The chapter ‘Altruism and Diplomacy’ provides a useful study on American investment and intervention in the development of former enemies including Japan, Italy and Germany after the Second World War. It gives a useful overall picture of interdependent relations between America and other countries in terms of the development of modern design and Japonisme. YK

Quennell, Peter (1932) A Superficial Journey through Tokyo and Peking. London: Faber & Faber.

Insightful, if not altogether complimentary, this is an account of Quennell’s fourteen months in Japan, with his first wife, to undertake a teaching position at the Tokyo University of Science and Literature (Tokyo Bunrika Daigaku). From this first text we discover Quennell’s dislike of his Japanese garden, contrasted with his delight with his newly built Japanese house describing it having ‘a prettiness, an air of elegant economy’ (p. 35). Quennell considered the book should be ‘regarded as a kind of travel film, a sequence in which image suggests image’ (p. 7) as he believed his time in Japan was too short for him to really know the country. In part, he found Japan stifling and claustrophobic experiencing ‘overwhelming relief’ (p. 159) when escaping to Peking for a brief Spring break. In this revealing text Quennell’s dichotomy is disclosed, finding communication with his students and other Japanese unrewarding but enchanted by Kabuki, Noh, and the puppet theatre. AB

Quennell, Peter (1942) The architectural tradition of Japan. The Architectural

Review, vol. 92, October no. 550, 78-80.

Published at the height of Japan’s territorial expansion in East Asia, this was the first article exclusively dedicated to traditional Japanese architecture since those of W G Blaikie Murdoch, ‘Architecture in Japan’ parts 1 and 2, appeared in the journal in 1921. Quennell begins with a comparison between Chinese and Japanese architecture, praising Chinese at the expense of Japanese. Although he does consider the interior of the Japanese house to be of merit, this respite is brief. He cites a new text by A L Sadler (1941) A Short History of Japanese Architecture to demonstrate that Japan’s architecture has no indigenous roots. The true purpose of this text, which on one hand criticises the Japanese as copyists and war mongers and on the other praises their artistry and interior design, becomes clear in the final sentence in which Quennell makes a plea for a distinction between the fascist military regime and Japanese cultural qualities. AB

Raymond, Antonin (1967) Watashi to Nihon Kenchiku (Japanese Architecture and Myself). Tokyo: Kajima Institute Publishing Company. YS [Editing in progress]

Raymond, Antonin (1970) Antonin Raymond: An Autobiography. Tokyo: Kajima Institute Publishing Company. YS [Editing in progress]

Reports by JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization) in Tokyo. YK

[Editing in progress]

Reynolds, Jonathan (2001) Maekawa Kunio and the Emergence of Japanese Modernist Architecture. Berkeley: University of California. HC [Editing in progress]

Roskill, Mark (1970) Van Gogh, Gauguin and the Impressionist Circle. London: Thames and Hudson. TW

Royal Academy of Arts (1936) The Chinese Exhibition: A Commemorative Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Chinese Art Royal Academy of Arts November 1935-March 1936. London: Faber & Faber.

With an introduction by Laurence Binyon, this large volume consisting of detailed, high quality black and white photographs, 160 full pages of illustrations in total, and short descriptions of all the 3,080 items exhibited, commemorates the International Exhibition of Chinese Art which opened at the Royal Academy on 28 November 1935. Binyon describes the Chinese artefacts that have entered the British home: the delicate china, beautifully patterned colour-harmonised wallpapers and silk fabrics, inspirational furniture, but queries the lack of interest to discover more about the supreme art of China, painting. He mentions Japan twice in this context: as borrowers of the long horizontal scroll painting, and early Japanese pictures as examples of the Buddhist painting of the T’ang period. It is fascinating to discover that 47 items for the exhibition were lent from Japanese sources, which include the Japanese Imperial Household, the Kyoto Imperial University, and Yamanaka Sadajirô, New York. AB

Russell, Lindsay ed. (1915) America to Japan: a symposium of papers by representative citizens of the United States on the relations between Japan and America on the common interests of the two countries. New York: The Knickerbocker Press. SO [Editing in progress]

Sadler, Arthur L. (1933) The art of flower arrangement in Japan: a sketch of its history and development. London: Country Life.

Dedicated ‘to the artist potter Bernard Leach’ (p. 5) and with a preface by the Australian artist and printmaker, Lionel Lindsay, this text purports not to be a manual on Japanese flower arrangement, but a history and a guide to the various schools of ikebana. Sadler is keen to stress that the Japanese ‘Way of Flowers’ is not a remnant of feudal Japan but a vibrant and living art form. He suggests that as modernist rooms ‘are either the result of direct Japanese influence or else have developed under similar conditions to those that produced the Japanese interior’ (p. 21) ikebana is ideally suited. He considers that which may, in Josiah Conder’s time, have been purely academic ‘may now prove a very real aesthetic stimulus’ (p. 22). Sadler states that a considerable part of the material in this book can also be found in Conder’s article ‘The Theory of Japanese Flower Arrangement’. Almost two thirds of the publication is dedicated to line drawn illustrations. AB

Sadler, Arthur L. (1934) Cha-no-yu: the Japanese tea ceremony. Japan: J. L. Thompson, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.

In this detailed account Sadler describes every aspect of the Japanese tea ceremony, from its origins, tea rooms, utensils, gardens, to tea masters and schools of tea. He believes the best description written in English of the ‘Way of Tea’ is Okakura Kakuzo’s The Book of Tea and he considers his own text to be ‘an attempt to supply further information from Japanese sources for those whose curiosity and interest Okakura has aroused’ (p. i). In his introduction, Sadler compares the European [Le Corbusier’s] notion of ‘a house is a machine to live in’ with teaism: ‘… simplicity in both East and West may spring from the same cause, but there is so much in the details of this Modernism that is identical with what has long been characteristic of Japanese …’ (p. ii). Texts by Charles Holme, Harada Jirô, Josiah Conder and Edward S. Morse are listed (p. 238). AB

Sadler, Arthur L. (1941) A short history of Japanese architecture. Sydney: Angus

& Robertson.

Published at a somewhat inauspicious time, this book is mentioned in Peter Quennell’s 1942 Architectural Review article. As the title implies the text is comparatively short but is enhanced with a large appendices section, which includes many line drawings, diagrams, plans, a glossary in Japanese and English, and a bibliography of works in both Japanese and European languages. Sadler admits to being ‘a layman in architectural matters’ (p. vii) and that the plans and drawings have been collated from books he has read. In the preface, he mentions Morse’s Japanese Homes and their Surroundings and he, like Wells Coates, uses Morse’s term ‘ceremonial window’. There are also several references to Harada Jirô’s The Lesson of Japanese Architecture and Yoshida Tetsurô’s Das japanische Wohnhaus. The first chapters chronicle the history of Japanese architecture until 1860 and the final six chapters relate to more detailed aspects such as building regulations and particular features, for example shôji and fusuma. AB

Salter, R. (2001) Japanese Woodblock Printing. London: A&C Black /University of Hawaii Press.

Salter, R. (2006) Japanese Popular Prints - From Votiv Slips to Playing Cards. London: A&C Black/University of Hawaii Press.


Sandler, Mark ed. (1997) The Confusion Era: Art and culture of Japan during the Allied Occupation, 1945-52. Seattle, MA: University of Washington Press.

This is a collection of six essays that examine the creativity and confusion in the arts caused by their interaction with the US guidance and censorship imposed under the occupation of SCAP. It ranges from visual arts (paintings and posters), literature and film to drama and Kabuki theatre. The memoir by Sherman E. Lee, who worked as an advisor on Collections then became chief of the Arts and Monuments Division of the Civil Information and Education Section (CIE), is a valuable account of oral history. His description of field inspection trips for the purpose of making an inventory of the arts and monuments of Japan, the assessment of the war damages and preservation of the cultural properties gives a glimpse of the actual day-to-day business of the CIE. YK

Sato, Tomoko & Watanabe, Toshio eds. (1991) Japan and Britain: an aesthetic

dialogue 1850-1930. London: Lund Humphries.

Shibusawa, Naoko (2006) America’s Geisha Ally: Reimagining the Japanese Enemy. Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press.

In line with Dower’s study, this book studies post-war American popular images of Japanese with a gender perspective. By examining the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) documents and popular novels, magazines and Hollywood films, Shibusawa points to the two dominant public discourses of portraying Japan as a woman and child who are subservient but have the potential to ‘grow up’. She also argues that America shrewdly marketed its ally Japan by re-inscribing pre-existing Orientalism through a submissive ‘beautiful sex kitten’ image of ‘baby-san’, while tackling the issue of racial tolerance by featuring Japanese war brides, and alleviated the war guilt by promoting the Hiroshima Maidens project which funded genbaku otome (atomic bomb maidens) who had hideous scars that would be treated with plastic surgery in US hospitals. YK

Shimizu, Yoshiaki (2001) Japan in American Museums: But Which Japan? The Art Bulletin, vol. 83, no. 1, March, 123-134. PS [Editing in progress]

Shirahata, Yôzaburô (1997) Daimyô Teien (Daimyô garden). Tokyo: Kôdansha.

The most ground-breaking book in recent Japanese garden history. This book rehabilitates the Edo period gardens of the Daimyôs, the feudal lords of the many domains, who had to keep official residences in Capital Edo. Shirahata’s analysis goes beyond formal and aesthetic one to examine socio-political and cultural aspects including their purpose and how they were used. His investigation of the historiography of why these Daimyô gardens got such a bad press in modern garden history uncovers two culprits in this story. It was only during early 20th century that the courtly style garden epitomised by Katsura Detached Palace and Zen garden epitomised by Ryôanji garden were given such canonical status at the expense of Edo Daimyô garden and these were hailed in publications by Mori Osamu and Shigemori Mirei. They are both regarded as the giants of modern garden history of Japan and Shirahata’s critique of these two is perhaps rather too sharp. According to Shirahata Meiji gardens are a continuation of Edo Daimyô garden and those pre-World War II gardens in the West simply continued this tradition. Thus, many of these, which may look inauthentic for many who look at these with post- Mori and post-Shigemori eyes, may be closer to what was common in pre-World War II Japan. TW

Shirahata, Yôzaburô (2005) Puranto Hanta (Plant Hunter). Tokyo: Kodansha. YS

[Editing in progress]

Shôkôshô Bôekichô & Shôkôshô Kôgei Shidôsho (Foreign Trade Bureau and Industrial Art Institute (IAI) of Ministry of Trade and Industry (MITI) eds. (1947) Yushutsu muke Kôgeihin Sankô Shiryô (Reference Material for Export Crafts). Tokyo: Bôeki Kenkyû Kai (Trade Research Group).

This is an official reference catalogue for manufacturers and designers that provides ideas for craft products suitable for export to the USA. Crafts were among the main types of mikaeri busshi (collateral products) for export intended to pay back Japan’s debt in respect of American food supplies and economic aid during the Occupation period. This catalogue is illustrated with photos of the craft product samples, which were selected by relevant Japanese organisations, approved by the General Headquarters (GHQ) and sent to the USA in 1946. It also compiles a GHQ officer’s comments on the craft products selected by the Japanese giving a representative view of GHQ’s taste for Japanese craft products. YK

Shugio, H. (1910) Japanese Art and Artists of To-Day – II Ceramic Artists. The Studio, vol. 50, no. 210, August, 286-293. JS

Silcock, Arnold (1928) Chinese Architecture, The Journal of the Royal Institute of

British Architects, vol. 35, 180-184.

Author of Chinese Architecture (1931) and Introduction to Chinese Art (1935), architect and writer, Silcock, laments the lack of study of the Chinese arts. He believes these arts had been neglected in favour of those of Japan. He considers Japanese culture to be ‘an

outgrowth’ from that of China, and the Japanese ‘thorough plagiarists’ (p.180), stating this to be particularly true of architecture. In this article Silcock discusses published texts on Chinese architecture, including ancient writings and contemporary works. However, he thinks it only fitting that the Japanese, ‘who owe so much to China’ (p. 180), should have effected in 1906, ‘a magnificent set of volumes’ (p. 180) on the monuments of Peking; these were produced by the Japanese Government. One work Photographs of Palace Buildings of Peking by Ogawa was published under the auspices of the Imperial Museum, Tokyo, with an explanatory text in English, Chinese and Japanese. Silcock believes that in the intervening years more good books had been published by the Japanese, the latest being Shina Peking-jô Kenchiku by Professor Itô. [Itô, Chuta ed. (1925) Shina Pekinjô kenchiku (The architecture of Beijing Castle in China). Tokyo: Kenchiku Kôgei Shuppanjo]. AB

Slapeta, Vladimir (1996) Competing ideas in Czechoslovakian architecture. In: Lesnikowski Wojciech ed. (1996) East European Modernism. Architecture in Czechoslovakia, Hungary & Poland between the wars. New York: Rizzoli International Publications. HC [Editing in progress]

Smith, Lawrence (2002) Japanese Prints during the Allied Occupation 1945-1952.

London: British Museum. RS [Editing in progress]

Stair, Julian F. (2003) Critical writing on English studio pottery 1910-1940, PhD thesis, Royal College of Art.

Starr, Frederick (1924) Fujiyama, the Sacred Mountain of Japan. Chicago: Covici-McGee. Fujiyama is probably the most serious book Starr wrote in his long and not uncontroversial career. In the preface he gives a very clear outline of his intentions: ‘It is not a guide-book. It is not intended to help the man who desires to climb the mountain. Plenty of other books do that. This book aims to reveal an attitude of mind; it attempts to show how the Japanese look upon that lovely mountain. It is a chapter in psychology. It is a study in religious history’ (preface). And he is true to his word. He not only gives a detailed account of the geology, geography and meteorology of the mountain but more importantly he places it in its cultural context through an exploration of the folklore and religion associated with it. The diary of his own ascent of Fujiyama offers a narrative punctuated with commentary on links to poetry and Fujiyama in woodblock prints. His writing clearly shows his love for and fascination with the mountain and the people involved with it. RS

Statler, Oliver (1959) Modern Japanese Prints: an art reborn. Rutland, VT: Tuttle.

Oliver Statler’s book is a very valuable overview of a generation of woodblock print artists working in the post-war era. Statler’s enthusiasm for and knowledge of Japanese prints, as well as his friendship with many of the artists means that he was able to analyse artistic and technical developments in a period of radical change. His thoughtful biographies offer a moving insight into the lives of a generation of artists who coincided with a new and difficult phase in the woodblock print tradition. The inclusion of an original print by Onchi Kôshirô is of particular value. There is also a thoughtful introduction by Statler’s friend and fellow print collector, James Michener. RS

The Studio

The first issue of The Studio: an illustrated magazine of fine and applied arts appeared in 1893, founded by Charles Holme (1848-1923) and was edited by him until 1921-22. Aubrey Beardsley and Frank Brangwyn contributed to this first edition. Holme had a profound interest in Japan, which he visited in 1889, and it is therefore, not surprising to find within the pages of The Studio frequent review of Japanese art and design. After Holme’s death his son, C Geoffrey Holme, became editor. Harada Jirô was corresponding editor for the Far East from 1911. By 1928 The Studio, under the title of Creative Art, was also published in Berlin, Leipzig, Milan, and New York where the title changed to Atelier in April 1931. In Britain, the subtitle changed in 1937 to an illustrated magazine of fine art, home decoration and design, and again in 1938 to The Studio: magazine of beauty. The Studio continued to be published until 1964, when it became Studio International and ceased production in 1993, however today Studio International continues as a website: www.studio-international.co.uk. AB

Suga, Yasuko (2008) “Artistic and Commercial” Japan: Modernity, Authenticity and Japanese Leather Paper. In: Hussay and Ponsonby ed. Buying for the Home. Farnham: Ashgate.

Suga, Yasuko (2008) ‘Modernism, Nationalism and Gender: Crafting ‘Modern’ Japonisme’, Journal of Design History, vol. 21 no. 3, 259-275.

Suzuki, Daisetz T. (1938) Zen Buddhism and its influence on Japanese Culture. Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Society. YS [Editing in progress]

Tanabe, Atsuko (1990) Hokusai o Aishita Mexico Shijin (A Mexican Poet who Loved Hokusai): José Juan Tablada. Tokyo: PMC Shuppan. (originally published as El Japonismo de José Juan Tablada, 1974). YK [Editing in progress]

Takemoto, Tadao (1971) Mark Tobey, Painter. In: Yamada Chisaburô, F. ed. (1976) Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. London, Paris & Tokyo: Kodansha International, 303-305. PS [Editing in progress]

Takemoto, Tadao (1972) Shiryû Morita, Calligrapher. In: Yamada Chisaburô F. ed. (1976) Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. London, Paris & Tokyo: Kodansha International, 306-311. PS [Editing in progress]

Tanaka, Atsuko & Ogawa, Nobuko (2001) Big Little Nob. Student of Frank Lloyd Wright Woman Architect Nobuko Tsuchiura. Tokyo: Domesu Shuppan. HC [Editing in progress]

Tanizaki, Jun’ichirô (1977) [1933] In Praise of Shadows. New Haven, Connecticut: Leete’s Island Books. HC [Editing in progress]

Taut, Bruno (1936) Fundamentals of Japanese Architecture. Tokyo: Kokusai

Bunka Shinkokai.

This reproduction of a lecture given by Taut on 30 October 1935 at the Peers’ Club in Japan is the first of his two texts written whilst living in Japan. Published by Kokusai Bunka Shinkôkai (The Society for International Cultural Relations), this text was produced with the intention of promoting understanding between nations. Taut believes that exoticism no longer exists in the West or Japan, therefore a more pragmatic approach to aesthetics may be taken; he considers Japanese simplicity to have been the main inspiration on modernist design from 1900, and he identifies the particular inspiration the architect derived from Japan. Much taken with Katsura Detached Palace, he also believes that the origin of the uncluttered, airy, modern room can be traced to Japan and advocates the imitation of the tokonoma in the West. We are left in little doubt to the reasons behind the publication of this text: ‘The Japanese people have been so engrossed in studying, appraising and adopting aspects of Western civilization that they have given very little thought to making their own civilization and culture known abroad’ (p. 3). AB

Taut, Bruno (1938) Houses and People of Japan. London: John Gifford.

A comprehensive description written from personal experience of living in a Japanese house during the 1930s, in which Taut not only delineates the features of many aspects of the architecture, but also gives an account of living conditions in the country. Taut writes of skeleton construction, sliding doors, built-in cupboards, and the tokonoma. However, he questions the validity of his text: ‘For me culture is the bridge between peoples, Japanese culture being one of the posts of this bridge. But how do such descriptions help’ (p. 37). The description of the Japanese house is a particularly detailed, personal account by a European experiencing Japan for the first time. Taut wrote only about what he actually saw in Japan and was concerned the text would be insufficiently comprehensive. Whatever his misgivings, Taut’s text contributes further to the dissemination of information on Japan and Japanese architecture during the interwar period. AB

Tobey, Mark (1958) Japanese Traditions and American Art. College Art Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, Autumn, 20-24. PS [Editing in progress]

Tomita, Noboru (2002) Ruten Shinchou Hihou (Treasures of Ching Dynasty in Flux). Tokyo: NHK Shuppan. YS [Editing in progress]

Tschichold, Jan (1971) Chinese and Japanese Colour Wood-block Printing. Leonardo, vol. 4, No. 1, Winter, 75-79. HC [Editing in progress]

Tsukui, Nobuko (1983) Ezra Pound and Japanese Noh Plays. Washington, DC: University Press of America. In this detailed study of Pound’s translations of Noh plays Tsukui highlights a period of early 20th century scholarship in Japanese literature. She notes the debt owed to Arthur Waley for his publication The No Plays of Japan which inspired Ernest Fennellosa’s draft Noh translations, completed by Pound at the request of Fennellosa’s widow and published in 1917. Tsukui’s commentary on Pound’s 15 translations of Noh plays acknowledges some of the disquiet that was expressed on publication and offers an in-depth comparative study of his version and the original Japanese. Pound’s involvement with Fennellosa’s papers is of particular significance as it marked the start of his interest in Chinese poetry and Japanese literature. RS

Tunnard, Christopher (1938) Gardens in the Modern Landscape. London: The

Architectural Press.

Much mention is made of Japanese garden design by this landscape architect, who also cites the Japanese house as an example for British modern architectural and landscape design (pp. 90-91). As inspirational sources for the modern landscape Tunnard offers: functionalism, the Orient and modern art. To him the only Oriental country to study is Japan. Perhaps the most fascinating element in the section ‘The Oriental Aesthetic’ is Tunnard’s choice of illustrations, not a series of photographs depicting traditional Japanese architecture, but images of modern Japanese homes and gardens by Antonin Raymond and Horiguchi Sutemi taken from Raymond McGrath’s (1934) Twentieth Century Houses. Tunnard lists Josiah Conder’s (1893) Landscape Gardening in Japan in the bibliography, and acknowledges Bernard Leach: ‘for information concerning Japanese art’ (p. 6). Subsequent editions published in 1948, New York: Scriber, and 1950, London: Architectural Press, contain additional material on ‘Modern American Gardens’ and although the text is unchanged, the heading ‘The Oriental Aesthetic’ has been omitted. AB

Ueda, Makoto & Fujimori, Terunobu (1996) The architecture of Kameki Tsuchiura. A Re-appreciation. Space design, July, 5-88. HC [Editing in progress]

Vanda Walle, W.F. ed. (2005) Japan and Belgium: four centuries of exchange. Tokyo: Yushodo: Commissioners-General of the Belgian Government at the Universal Exposition of Aichi. YS [Editing in progress]

Unpublished documents and photographs in the Russel Wright Archive at the Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Library.

This archive contains materials related to Wright’s involvement in Asia as part of the government mission but also includes materials pertaining to his private design projects. Japan related materials inform his interest in Japanese craft/craft-design products, and also offer evidence that Japonisme in American design culture in the 1950s-60s was to some extent propagated by Russel Wright. YK

Wada, Hirohumi & Shindô, Masahiro, et al. (2009) Gengo-toshi London 1861-1945. Tokyo: Fujiwara Shoten. SO [Editing in progress]

Waley, Arthur (1922) Zen Buddhism and its Relation to Art. London: Luzac. PS

[Editing in progress]

Washburn, Gordon (1976) Japanese Influences on Contemporary Art: A Dissenting View. In: Yamada Chisaburô F. ed. (1976) Dialogue in Art. Japan and the West. London, Paris & Tokyo: Kodansha International, 198-209. PS

[Editing in progress]

Watanabe, Toshio (1991) High Victorian Japonisme, Bern: Peter Lang.

Weaver, Mike (1986) Alvin Langdon Coburn, Symbolist Photographer, 1882-1966: Beyond the Craft. New York: Aperture. PS [Editing in progress]

Weisberg, Gabriel P. et al (1975) Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854-1910. Cleveland OH: Cleveland Museum of Art. TW

Weisberg, Gabriel P. & Yvonne M.L. (1990) Japonisme an annotated bibliography. New York & London: Garland Publishing.

Anticipated by the authors to ‘provide the student of Japonisme with a ready store of material to consult’ (p. xxviii), this book aims to assist in the determination of the meaning of Japonisme, its historical context, and impact on western art and culture. Considered to be the first bibliography on Japonisme to be completely annotated, the subject is dealt with as an international phenomenon occurring, predominantly, in the USA, France and Britain. The selected texts are divided into the categories of books, catalogues, articles, dissertations, reviews, and there are indexes by author and by subject. Catalogues comprise of those for exhibitions and collections of Japanese art until 1900, and exhibitions devoted to the subject of Japonisme from 1900 to 1989. This is a useful source of texts, which has several references to architecture, including Edward Strange’s 1897 article ‘Architecture in Japan’ (The Architecture Review, vol. 1, pp. 126-135). AB

Weisenfeld, Gennifer. (2002) Mavo: Japanese Artists and the Avant-Garde, 1905-1931. Berkeley: University of California Press. HC [Editing in progress]

Weisenfeld, Gennifer (2009) Publicity and Propaganda in 1930s Japan: Modernism as Method. Design Issues, Autumn, vol. 25, Issue 4, 13-28. HC [Editing in progress]

Westgeest, Helen (1996) Zen in the Fifties: Interaction in Art between East and West. Zwolle: Waanders.

This book gives a clear overview of the impact of Zen on art in the West in the 1950s, by basing the analysis within the context of Zen in Japan. Discussions of Zen in Japanese traditional culture as well as modern art provide the basis for comparison with its role in the West. The international legacy of Suzuki Daisetsu is a thread, which runs through the book. The section on American art addresses the work of three well-known artists, Mark Tobey, John Cage and Ad Reinhardt and evaluates the impact of Zen within the context of America’s own transcendental tradition, e.g. Thoreau. The sections on France and Germany highlight less well-known artists such as Jean Degottex and Rupprecht Geiger giving a broader interpretation of the impact of Zen on western art. RS

Wichmann, Siegfried (1981) Japonisme: The Japanese Influence on Western Art since 1858. London: Thames and Hudson. PS [Editing in progress]

Wilkins, Mira (1982) American-Japanese direct foreign investment relationships, 1930-1952. The Business History Review, vol. 56, Winter, 497-518. SO

[Editing in progress]

Winter-Tamaki, Bert (2001) Art in the Encounter of Nations: Japanese and American Artists in the Early Postwar Years. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. PS [Editing in progress]

Wright, Frank Lloyd (1931) Modern Architecture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wright’s 1930 Kahn Lectures, given to Princeton undergraduates, form the basis of this book in which he believes Japan has much to offer the modern world. In the first text, ‘Machinery, Materials and Men’ Wright describes the Japanese as ‘profound builders of the Orient’ (p. 4) and in the second ‘Style in Industry’ he discusses ‘Old Japan’ before the 19th century contact with the West, when ‘perfect Style in Industry was supreme and native’ (p. 28) stating ‘this humble [Japanese] dwelling is a veritable sermon on our subject’ (p. 33). He writes of cleanliness, simplicity, spirituality and organic nature. Wright offers Japanese constructional methods as an example for modern standardisation and mass production; he equates the clean lines produced by machinery with the clean lines and orderliness of the Japanese house and believes that the traditional handmade home of Japan demonstrates the fitness of purpose of the modernist ideals. AB

Wright, Mary & Russel (2003) [1950] Guide to Easier Living. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith.

In this book, Mary and Russel Wright declared that an ideal modern American lifestyle could be realised through inexpensive, democratic, practical and informal living by dissociating oneself from old-fashioned Victorian lifestyle. It provides detailed instructions of a ‘do and don’t do’ list and is richly illustrated with drawings of model rooms in an IKEA style. Japanese inspiration is profoundly present in their concept such as the ‘all-in-one-room’ with their interpretation of the Japanese multipurpose use of a space. This informs how Japanese ideas were appropriated to formulate American identity and modernity in design by these lifestyle gurus, and how Japonisme penetrated the everyday lives of American people. YK

Yamada, Chisaburô, F. (1976) Isamu Noguchi, Sculptor. In: Yamada, Chisaburô F.,ed. (1976) Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. London, Paris & Tokyo: Kodansha International, 289-293. PS [Editing in progress]

Yamada, Chisaburô (1976) Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. London: Zwemmer. TW

Yamano, Hidetsugu ed. (1999) 日本の前衛 (Japanese Avant-garde) – Art into life 1900 – 1940. Kyoto: Kyoto Kokuritsu Kindai Bijutsukan. HC [Editing in progress]

Yamawaki, Michiko (1995) Bauhaus to Cha-no-yu. Tokyo: Shinchosha. YS

[Editing in progress]

Yanagi, Sôetsu (1931) The Pottery of Shoji Hamada, catalogue. London: Paterson’s Gallery. JS

Yao, Min-Chih (1983) The Influence of Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy on Mark Tobey (1890-1976). Asian Library Series, no. 23, San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center. PS [Editing in progress]

Yashiro, Yukio (1936) Artists of Japan Speak to the Soul through Symbols. The New York Times, September 6, section 7, 6-7, 19. SO [Editing in progress]

Yokoyama, Toshio (1987) Japan in the Victorian Mind: a study of stereotyped images of a nation. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan. TW

Yoshida, Mitsukuni ed. (1990) Bankokuhaku no Nihonkan [Japanese Pavilions at international expositions] Tokyo: Inax Gallery. SO [Editing in progress]

Yoshida, Tetsuro (1955) The Japanese house and garden. London: Architecture Press.

First published in Berlin in 1935 under the title Das japanische Wohnhaus, this is a translation of the second edition with an extensively revised text, particularly in the chapter on the garden, and an overhaul of illustrations. There are many detailed, evocative photographs of Katsura. However Yoshida concludes with images of contemporary Japanese architecture. Line drawings clarify construction and an appendix provides standardised dimensions and proportions. It is possible to deduce that the earlier 1935 German edition was a significant illustration resource for many a writer on Japanese architecture from the mid 1930s. Cultural as well as historical detail is given. Yoshida hoped that he was contributing to ‘… the cultural interchange of all peoples, and it has been my wish to take part, even if only as one little drop, in this important work’ (p. 7). The publication of this text coincides with the resurgence of interest in Japan after World War II in the mid 1950s. AB

Yoshihara, Mari (2003) Embracing the East: White women and American Orientalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yoshihara’s book highlighting the role of white women in the narrative of Orientalism in America is a valuable re-interpretation of the taste for Japonisme. Approached from a gender and identity standpoint, she illuminates the male/female roles in the spread of Japanese taste as well as examining the complexities of image, gender and identity between Asian and white women in the American context. The chapter on women woodblock artists, Bertha Lum and Helen Hyde, is particularly useful in its analysis of their approach to subject matter and technique and the degree to which they engaged with the Japanese craftsmen they encountered. The inclusion of both Chinese and Japanese influences and contacts sheds light on the difficult subject of anti-Asian sentiment in America. RS

Zilczer, Judith (1999) “Light Coming on the Plains”: Georgia O’Keeffe’s Sunrise Series. Artibus et Historiae vol. 20, no. 40, 191-208. PS [Editing in progress]

Biographies

William Anderson (1842-1900) AB [Editing in progress]

Charles W Bartlett (1860-1940) RS [Editing in progress]

Gustave Baumann (1881-1971) RS [Editing in progress]

Ruth Benedict (1887-1948)

Ruth Benedict was born in New York City. Her childhood was marked by the death of her father when she was two. In 1922 she graduated from Columbia University with a PhD in anthropology after having studied with the famous anthropologist, Franz Boas. In 1941 she was a founder of The Institute for Intercultural Studies, as a result of which she was asked by the Office of War Information to study European and Asian cultures and she chose to specialise in Japan although she had no specific knowledge of the country. She analysed Japanese propaganda films and diaries taken from Japanese prisoners and interviewed Japanese Americans. Her last book, The Chrysanthemum and the Sword (1946), an analysis of the culture of Japan, is perhaps her best known but is not without its critics, in particular because of her choice of sources. She died in the US in 1948. RS

Henry Bergen (1873-1950) JS

Laurence Binyon (1869-1943)

Poet, scholar and curator at the British Museum. For the general public he is best remembered for his World War I poem ‘For the Fallen’, often recited at Remembrance Sundays and carved in many war graves. He was interested not only in Japanese art but also more widely in Asian art and saw Japan as part of it rather than something discreetly separate. He was an important member of early 20th century intellectual and literary circle, which included Ezra Pound, W.B. Yeats and Arthur Waley. His advocacy of Japanese art was influential among this circle, but his genuine admiration for Japanese art at times feels rather innocent and naïve. For further information on Binyon see Hatcher, John. Laurence Binyon: Poet, Scholar of East and West. Clarendon Press, 1995. TW

Frank Brangwyn (1867-1956) SO [Editing in progress]

Pearl S Buck (1892-1973)

Pearl Buck was born in West Virginia to missionary parents who returned to China soon after her birth, as a result of which she grew up bilingual. Her unhappy first marriage to an agricultural economist working in China ended in divorce in 1935. She became a popular author and is best known for her 1931 novel of Chinese family life, The Good Earth, which won the Pulitzer Prize and became a film in 1937. Buck won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1938. She was also actively engaged in a variety of issues including women’s rights, immigration and adoption. In 1942, with her second husband Richard Walsh, she launched the East and West Association to promote cross-cultural understanding. Outraged at the treatment of Asian and mixed-race orphans, she founded the inter-racial adoption agency, Welcome House in 1949 and in 1964 started the Pearl S Buck Foundation to sponsor children in Asian countries. She died in Pennsylvania in 1973. RS

John Cage (1912-1992) PS [Editing in progress]

Wells Coates (1895-1958)

Born in Tokyo to Canadian Methodist Missionaries, Coates was an eminent figure within the British modern movement. He was a founder member of the Twentieth Century Group, Unit One and Chairman of the MARS (Modern Architectural Research) Group, the British branch of the CIAM (Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne). He was responsible for some of the most advanced Modernist designs in Britain during the interwar period. He is probably best known for his radio designs for Ekco and as the architect of Lawn Road Flats in which his ‘minimum’ flat design was realised. Throughout his life Coates frequently referred to his formative upbringing in Japan and it can be observed that this childhood experience had a palpable effect upon his subsequent design work. He was fond of listing the skills he had acquired as a child and explaining how this Eastern training had been dovetailed into his Western scientific education. AB

Alvin Langdon Coburn (1882-1966) PS [Editing in progress]

Josiah Conder (1852-1920)

British architect trained by Thomas Roger Smith and William Burges. He was employed by the Japanese government to build for the nation and to educate the first generation of modern Japanese architects. He is generally regarded as the father of modern architecture in Japan. He emphasised in his teaching that architecture is art. In his major public buildings, such as the Ueno National Museum or Rokumeikan (Deer Cry Pavilion), he included ‘Seudo-Saracenic’ elements to orientalise the Western-style buildings. He was taught Japanese-style painting by Kawanabe Kyôsai and became a major proselytiser of Japanese art. His book Landscape gardening in Japan (1893) became a standard work in this field, but was appreciated little in Japan. TW

Edward Gordon Craig (1872-1966) PS [Editing in progress]

Ronald Dore (1925-) RS [Editing in progress]

Arthur Wesley Dow (1857-1922) PS [Editing in progress]

John Embree (1908-1950) RS [Editing in progress]

Sergei Eisenstein (1898-1948) PS [Editing in progress]

George Eumorfopoulos (1863-1939) JS

Ernest Fennollosa (1853-1908) TW or HY

Bedřich Feuerstein (1892-1936) HC [Editing in progress]

Frank Morley Fletcher (1866-1949)

Fletcher was born and educated in the UK but it was his time in Paris, which forged his link with Japanese woodblock prints. The technique and aesthetics of the prints made an impression on him and on his return to England he continued to experiment with the practice of woodblock as he pursued his career in teaching. At Central School of Arts and Crafts and at Edinburgh School of Art he taught woodcut, with the artist responsible for the entire process, before moving to California to become director of the Santa Barbara School of Arts. When Fletcher moved to the US and began to teach his interpretation of Japanese woodblock, he left behind several students in the UK (Allen Seaby, William Giles, Mable Royds) who continued both using and teaching the method. After a decline in enrolment at Santa Barbara during the Great Depression, Fletcher resigned and eventually retired to Ojai, California where he died in 1949. His contribution as an advocate for Japanese woodblock in the UK and US has now been recognised. RS

Henri Focillon (1881-1943) PS [Editing in progress]

Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997) PS [Editing in progress]

Ernö Goldfinger (1902-1987)

An admirer of Japanese architecture, who was impressed by the experience of watching the unpacking and assembly of the numbered, tissue paper wrapped pieces of the traditional style Japanese pavilion at the 1925 Paris Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes. Goldfinger, born in Budapest, moved to England in 1934 having studied architecture in Paris under Auguste Perret in the 1920s. Whilst in Paris he associated with and was inspired by Le Corbusier and Adolf Loos. He was a friend of Wells Coates whom he met, in his capacity of secretary to the French branch of the CIAM (Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne), at the CIAM IV congress in the summer of 1934. Goldfinger, a member of the MARS Group (Modern Architectural Research Group), incorporated a tokonoma in his family home at 2 Willow Road, Hampstead (1939), and also compared Japanese traditional architecture with modern European (AR, vol. 91, January 1942 pp. 5-8). AB

Martha Graham (1894-1991) PS [Editing in progress]

Morris Graves (1910-2001) PS [Editing in progress]

Walter Gropius (1883-1969)

Berlin architect, designer and director of the Bauhaus, Gropius fled Nazi Germany for Britain in 1934 assisted by the architect, Maxwell Fry, and the entrepreneur, Jack Pritchard of Isokon. Gropius lived at Lawn Road Flats, designed by Wells Coates, now known as the Isokon flats, from 1934 to 1937, when he accepted the Chair of Architecture in the Graduate School of Design at Harvard. Before his visit to Japan in the early 1950s, Gropius knew of Japanese architecture commenting on it in his paper, ‘The Formation and Technical Problems of Modern Architecture and Planning’ read before the DIA (Design and Industries Association) in May 1934 and reproduced in the Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects (vol. 41, pp. 679-694). However, in 1954 he sent a postcard to Wells Coates from Japan stating: ‘The old Japanese house is the most modern in conception I know of – a real revelation for me.’ Coates and Gropius spent an afternoon discussing Japan in April 1955 whilst Coates was a visiting professor at Harvard. AB

Ernst Hacker (1917-1987)

Hacker was born in Vienna of Jewish parents and fled to New York in 1938, later becoming a UScitizen and was drafted into the army. He arrived in Japan in 1946 with the Occupation Forces. As he had an art training, he was attached to a unit producing posters and graphic material. He quickly got to know Japanese printmakers, in particular Onchi Kôshirô, and had his own work included in the first post-war exhibition of the Japanese Print Association. Through Onchi’s introduction he became involved with the First Thursday Society (Ichimokukai), which had been started in 1939 by artists Onchi, Yamaguchi Gen and Sekino Jun’ichirô. It became an important organisation through which woodblock printing would survive. The post-war collections of prints produced by the society (1946, 1947, 1948, 1949 and 1950) mark the return in confidence in the medium after the privations of the war. Hacker appears in the 1947 collection. He died in Italy in 1987. RS

Hamada Shôji (1894-1978) JS

Harada Jirô (1878-1963)

A major writer on Japanese arts in English during the first half of the 20th century. He published a range of articles on Japanese arts in Studio and also a number of books, such as The Gardens of Japan (1928), The Lesson of Japanese Architecture (1936) or A Glimpse of Japanese Ideal (1937). The last book of these was based on his lectures given at the University of Oregon, where he received an honorary doctorate in 1936. Harada’s personal history was little known until Katahira Miyuki’s doctoral work uncovered it. She has published details of his biography in Miyuki Katahira, ‘Ôbei ni okeru Nihon teienzô no keisei to Harade Jirô no The Gardens of Japan’ (The Images of Japanese Gardens in the West: the Analysis of Jiro Harada’s The Gardens of Japan) Nihon Kenkyû, 34, March 2007, 179-208 (in Japanese with English summary). TW

Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904) AB or HY

Charles Holme (1848-1923)

The founder of The Studio, the arts magazine with a propensity to promote Japanese art and design, Holme, an archetypal Victorian entrepreneur, began trading in Central Asian artefacts in Bradford in the early 1870s. His friendship with Arthur Lasenby Liberty, the originator of the Liberty’s store, and the designer, Christopher Dresser, introduced him to Japanese design. In 1879, Holme moved to London and started, with Dresser, a firm of wholesalers and importers of Japanese goods at premises in Farringdon Road. He continued the enterprise as Holme & Co until 1888. In 1889 he visited Japan in the company of the artist, Alfred East, and Mr & Mrs Arthur Liberty, seeing many of the places Dresser had visited in 1877. Shortly after his return from Japan, Holme acquired William Morris’ Red House, Bexleyheath. He was an active founder member of the Japan Society: Honorary Secretary, 1892-1904; Chairman of Council, 1904-07; Vice-President from 1907, and wrote papers on aspects of Japanese art and design. He received the Order of the Rising Sun in recognition for his work in promoting understanding between Japan and the West. AB

Horiguchi Sutemi (1895-1984) HC [Editing in progress]

Helen Hyde (1868-1919) RS [Editing in progress]

Imai Kazuko (1910-2001) and Yamamuro Mitsuko (1911-1999) YS

[Editing in progress]

Itô Chûta (1867-1954) HC [Editing in progress]

Feliks Manggha Jasieński (1861-1929) PS [Editing in progress]

Edward McKnight Kauffer (1891-1954) YS [Editing in progress]

Kawakita Renshichirô (1902-1975) HC [Editing in progress]

Elizabeth Keith (1887-1956)

Elizabeth Keith was born in Scotland and later moved to London. In 1915 she went to Japan to visit her sister who had moved there after marrying, and stayed nine years. She used Japan as a base to travel widely in the region, most notably to Korea. Keith was a self-taught artist, and in 1919 her watercolours of Korea were seen by the influential Japanese woodblock print publisher, Watanabe Shôzaburô, who persuaded her to publish an edition of 100 prints. Although her blocks were cut and printed for her, she spent time studying the technique so that she could work with them more effectively. She returned to the UK in 1924 but went back to Japan for another visit in 1932, leaving in 1936 because of the worsening military situation. After the war she renewed her contact with Watanabe. Whilst in Japan Keith became friends with Antonin & Noémi Raymond. RS

Kenmochi Isamu (1912-1971) YS [Editing in progress]

Franz Kline (1910-1962) PS [Editing in progress]

Hans Knoll (1914-1955) and Florence Knoll Bassett (1917-) HC [Editing in progress]

Lorraine Kuck (?-?) TW

Kunii Kitarô (1883-1967) YS [Editing in progress]

Kuniyoshi Yasuo (1889-1953) SO [Editing in progress]

Kusama Yayoi (1929-) Kusama was born in Matsumoto, Nagano prefecture and has suffered hallucinations and mental illness all her life. She often attributes this to ill treatment by her mother as a child but credits it with being the root of her creativity. After a lengthy correspondence with the American artist Georgia O’Keefe, she left for New York in 1956. She quickly established herself as part of the avant-garde through ‘happenings’, sometimes naked, sometimes wearing kimono. She also became known for her series of large abstract paintings, Net Series, which were compared with the work of Mark Rothko or Barnett Newman. Her illness forced her to return to Japan in 1973. She currently lives in Tokyo in a mental hospital, out of choice, and works in her studio nearby. Her work has received recognition at home and abroad; she was the first woman to receive Japan’s prestigious Praemium Imperiale prize in 2006. RS

John La Farge (1835-1910) TW

Charles Laughton (1899-1962)

Married to fellow actor Elsa Lanchester, and best known for his screen roles from the 1930s to the 1950s, Laughton, a practitioner of modern aesthetics, was a friend and client of Wells Coates. Laughton was fond of all things Japanese, from Hokusai prints to the tea-ceremony. Not only did Coates’ 1931 interior design conversion of their flat at 34 Gordon Square, London, include the use of shôji, but as recalled by Lanchester, they practiced the principle of the tokonoma by hanging a picture for only a few months before putting it away and replacing it with another. Laughton was a keen flower arranger and used pots by Bernard Leach and Hamada Shoji for this purpose, although the resulting ikebana were generally attributed to Lanchester. Shortly before his death, Laughton finally visited Japan and the gardens of Kyoto, to which he refers in: Laughton, Charles ed. (1962) The Fabulous Country. New York: McGraw-Hill. AB

Bernard Leach (1887-1976) JS

Sherman E Lee (1918-2008) YK [Editing in progress]

Bertha Lum (1869-1954) RS [Editing in progress]

Stanton MacDonald-Wright (1890-1973) PS [Editing in progress]

Raymond McGrath (1903-1977)

Antipodean architect, friend and protégé of the Cambridge don, Mansfield Forbes, founder member of Twentieth Century Group, McGrath was appointed Decoration Consultant for the BBC studios at Broadcasting House where he worked with Serge Chermayeff and Wells Coates. He studied architecture at the University of Sidney and also Oriental history, producing a short illustrated text on the history of Chinese architecture. In 1926 he received a postgraduate travel scholarship to study in England where he became the first research student in architecture at Cambridge University. Unable to find contemporary examples of Chinese architecture, his first book Twentieth Century Houses (1934), included nine examples of modern Japanese architecture. McGrath was responsible for the ‘Planning the Dwelling’ section at the RIBA centenary exhibition ‘International Architecture 1924-1934’, that opened on 1 December 1934, in which he included two photographs of Coates’ Lawn Road Flats and ten of modern Japanese architecture. As a MARS (Modern Architectural Research) Group member he took an active role in its 1938 exhibition. AB

Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) AB [Editing in progress]

Ma(r)kino Yoshio (1874-1956) TW

Matsuki Bunkio (1867-1940) SO [Editing in progress]

Mori Osamu (1905-1988) TW

Edward Morse (1838-1925) AB [Editing in progress]

Mortimer Menpes (1855-1938) TW

James Michener (1907-1997)

James Michener was born in New York City and adopted soon after birth. He was an able student, graduated from Swarthmore College and became a teacher. During World War II he was stationed in the South Pacific, an experience, which formed the basis for his novel Tales of the South Pacific that won the Pulitzer Prize in 1948. His novel Sayonara (1954) was loosely based on the story of Madame Butterfly and was adapted as a popular film in 1957. He married his third wife Mari Yoriko Sabusawa, a second generation Japanese-American, in 1955. Throughout his life he was a keen scholar and collector of Japanese prints and published two books on the subject. His collection of 5400 prints was donated to the Honolulu Academy of Art. RS

Robert O. Muller (1911-2003) SO [Editing in progress]

William Staite Murray (1881-1962) JS

George Nakashima (1905-1990) YS [Editing in progress]

Natori Yônosuke (1910-1962) HC [Editing in progress]

Richard Neutra (1892-1970) HC [Editing in progress]

Isamu Noguchi (1904-1988) TW

Noguchi Yone (Yonejiro) (1875-1947) TW

Obara Kuniyoshi (1887-1977) HC [Editing in progress]

Okajima Tatsugoro (1880-1962) SO [Editing in progress]

Okakura Kakuzô (1862/3-1913) HC [Editing in progress]

Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986) PS [Editing in progress]

Obata Chiura (1885-1975) RS [Editing in progress]

Yoko Ono (1933-) PS [Editing in progress]

Harry Gloyd Cole Packard 1914-1991 [Editing in progress]

John Edgar Platt (1886-1967)

Born in Leek, Staffordshire, Platt studied art at Newcastle, Margate and Leek Schools of Art before going to the Royal College of Art. He combined a career in teaching with design work, artistic commissions and a spell as a war artist in the 1940s. His contact with colour woodcut was through the Society of Gravure Printers in Colour and The Colour Woodcut Society. He exhibited painting and prints in the UK and abroad and in 1938 published Colour Woodcuts: a book of reproductions and a handbook of method. This publication shows an understanding of the Japanese technique but unlike many other artists attracted to the method, he portrayed typical British subject matter. His subjects may have been traditional, but he was experimental in his approach to the technique. He produced very little work after 1950 and died in 1967. RS

Joe D Price (1929-) SO [Editing in progress]

Ezra Pound (1885-1972) Born in rural Idaho, Pound moved to Europe, living in London, Paris and then Italy where his wartime activities saw him being returned to the US and charged with treason. An insanity plea led to detention in an asylum before he was released to return to Italy. Pound published Haiku in 1913. His interest in Chinese poetry and Japanese drama developed further after meeting Ernest Fennollosa’s widow and receiving his papers as literary executor. Pound’s particular interest became Noh theatre, publishing two volumes on the subject in 1916. Pound had many Japanese contacts with whom he conducted long correspondences, including the poet Yone Noguchi. He died in Italy in 1972. RS

Vojtěch Preissig (1873-1944) HC [Editing in progress]

Peter Quennell (1905-1993)

Had a ‘love-hate’ relationship with Japan but he is significant for his recount of his fourteen months spent in Japan, A Superficial Journey through Tokyo and Peking (1932), and for his article ‘The architectural tradition of Japan’ published in The Architectural Review (vol. 92, October 1942 pp. 78-80). Born in Bickley, Kent, the son of Marjorie and Charles Henry Bourne Quennell social historians and authors of the series A History of Everyday Things in England. In 1930, after Balliol College, Oxford, and a spell as a journalist in London, Peter Quennell travelled to Japan with his first wife to take up an English teaching post at Tokyo University of Science and Literature (Tokyo Bunrika Daigaku). Quennell found teaching uninspiring, resorting to dictating his lectures as Lafcadio Hearn had done. He resigned after one year, and was replaced by the poet and writer, William Empson (1906-84). Biographer, critic, and literary historian, Quennell was knighted in 1992. AB

Antonin Raymond (1888-1976) and Noemi Raymond (1889-1980) YS

[Editing in progress]

Ad Reinhardt (1913-1967) RS [Editing in progress]

John Davison Rockefeller, Jr. (1874-1960) HC [Editing in progress]

Arthur Lindsay Sadler (1882-1970)

Probably better known in Australia than in the UK, Sadler was a prolific British writer on things Japanese. From 1909 he spent 12 years in Japan teaching English and Latin, during which time he married an Anglo-Japanese, Eva Botan Seymour. He was a council member of the Asiatic Society of Japan, and in 1919 he was appointed fifth class companion of the Order of the Rising Sun. In 1922 Sadler became Professor of Oriental Studies at Sydney University, and was also Professor of Japanese at the Royal Military College of Australia. It was whilst holding these two professorships Sadler wrote on Japan, subjects included flower arrangement (1933), the tea ceremony (1934), architecture (1941) and various aspects of Japanese history. He also translated works of Japanese literature, including contemporary writers. In 1948 he retired to the village of Great Bardfield, Essex, the home of many noted 20th century English artists, including Edward Bawden and Eric Ravilious. AB

Sakakura Junzô (1904-1969) HC [Editing in progress]

Senda Koreya (1904-1996) HC [Editing in progress]

Shigemori Mirei (1896-1975) TW

Frederick Starr (1858-1933)

Starr was born the son of a clergyman in New York State. His degree was in science but his interests shifted to anthropology. In 1892 he was appointed professor of anthropology at the University of Chicago, where he remained as a popular if eccentric teacher until his retirement in 1923. He also earned a reputation as an adventurous traveller and a populist if controversial speaker. He travelled widely in Mexico and wrote on local Indian dialects and folklore. On his visits to West Africa and Congo he documented languages and made recordings of traditional music. His contact with Japan began in 1904 with a trip to bring Ainu to the US for the St Louis exposition. His long period of contact with Japan concentrated on folklore and religion, in particular Fujikô (富士講)and pilgrimage, senshafuda (千社札), ema (絵馬)and toys. He made extensive collections of the objects that interested him, especially fuda and ema. He survived the 1923 Tokyo earthquake but died there in 1933. A memorial was erected at the foot of Mount Fuji by his Japanese friends. RS

Oliver Statler (1915-2002) Statler was the son of a physician in remote Illinois. An outstanding student at high school and the University of Chicago he was called up into the army in 1941 and served in the Pacific, after which he took a civilian position in Japan. His lifelong interest in Japanese woodblock prints began after seeing an exhibition. He built up a superb collection, now in the Art Institute of Chicago, but he also helped develop the careers of contemporary artists, in particular through the publication of Modern Japanese Prints: An Art Reborn (1956). He was friends with the author and fellow print collector James Michener. His later publications Japanese Inn and Japanese Pilgrimage developed out of his long-standing interest in the Tokaidô road as the main artery of old Japan. Statler wrote many articles, film scripts, plays and lectured extensively through his long career. He died in Japan in 2002. RS

Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946) PS [Editing in progress]

Suzuki Daisetz T (Daisetsu) (1870-1966) TW

Takamine Jôkichi (1854-1922) SO [Editing in progress]

Bruno Taut (1880-1938)

Prolific German expressionist architect and writer, who spent three years in Japan (1933-36) in avoidance of Nazi Germany. During this time Taut was in the employ of the Japanese Government, working as an advisor to the Industrial Arts Research Institute (IARI, Kôgei Shidôsho) and to promote industrial craft with craftsmen and designers in Takasaki. Taut was taken to the Katsura Detached Palace by members of the Nihon Intânashonaru Kenchikukai (Japan International Architectural Association). He was particularly impressed by the palace considering its beauty to be eternal; in Katsura he saw the model for a truly international architecture. Taut is credited with re-introducing the Japanese to their architectural heritage. His observations on the role of Japan in the development of modern art and design in the West are significant. AB

Teshigahara Sôfu (1900-1979) YS [Editing in progress]

Mark Tobey (1890-1976) PS [Editing in progress]

Tomimoto Kenkichi (1886-1963) YK [Editing in progress]

Toyoguchi Kappei (1905-1991) YS [Editing in progress]

Jan Tschichold (1902-1974) HC [Editing in progress]

Tsuchiura Kameki (1897-1996) HC [Editing in progress]

Tsuchiura Nobuko (1900-1998) HC [Editing in progress]

Christopher Tunnard (1910-1979)

Born in Canada, Tunnard came to England in 1929 and studied horticulture, becoming an associate of the newly formed Institute of Landscape Architects. For three years he was employed by the garden architect, Percy Cane, who was well versed in the Japanese garden. Tunnard worked with the three designers of the Broadcasting House interiors: he was garden architect for Coates’ 1939 10 Palace Gate flats; he worked with Chermayeff on the landscaping of Bentley Wood 1938; he was landscape architect for Ann’s Hill designed by McGrath 1935-36. His first book Gardens in the Modern Landscape (1938) makes substantial mention of the Japanese garden, using McGrath’s modern Japanese architecture photographs as illustrations. Tunnard, a member of the MARS (Modern Architectural Research) 1936 town planning committee, participated in the 1938 MARS exhibition. At the onset of WW2 he accepted Walter Gropius’ invitation to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, and taught at Yale after the war. AB

Urushibara Mokuchû (1888-1953) TW

Arthur Waley (1889-1966) Waley was born of Jewish heritage, Arthur David Schloss, but took the name of his paternal grandmother, Waley. After studying Classics at Cambridge he became the assistant keeper of Oriental Prints and Manuscripts at the British Museum. Having taught himself Chinese and Japanese he then devoted his life to translation, though he never travelled to East Asia. His most important Japanese translations were The Tale of Genji, by Murasaki Shikibu, published in six volumes between 1921 and 1933, and The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon (1928). His preference for meaning over style in his translations has been questioned, notably by his friend, the poet Ezra Pound. Waley died in London in 1966. RS

Langdon Warner (1881-1955)

As a student of Okakura Tenshin (Okakura Kakuzô) and Yokoyama Taikan while living in Nara, and as the head of Oriental Section at the Fogg Museum of Art of Harvard University, Warner was regarded as the authority of Japanese art in the USA. He was also a revered figure in Japan as a legendary hero ‘warera no onjin’ (our benefactor) who was seen as instrumental in saving the art treasures in Kyoto and Nara from air raid during the war. He was appointed an expert consultant for the Arts and Monuments Division of the General Headquarters (GHQ) in 1946 in order to assess war damages of national treasures and monuments, investigate private collections, advise on their listing for the purpose of protection and carry out a feasibility study on establishing an advisory body to the Japanese government on matters of arts and monuments. Warner’s views were extremely influential in evaluating Japanese art both in the USA and Japan. YK

James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) TW

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)

Despite a somewhat ambiguous relationship with his Japanese inspiration, the prominent American architect was associated with Japan in the British architectural journals during the inter-war years, as his own writing during this period confirms. A keen collector of Japanese woodblock prints, Wright first visited Japan in 1905, returning in December 1916 as the appointed architect of the new Imperial Hotel, Tokyo. The project took six years to complete during which time Wright made four further extended visits. Whilst in Japan he designed a school building, the Myônichikan, in 1921 for the recently established Jiyû Gakuen, and also Yamamura House, Ashiya (1918-1924). In his autobiography of 1946, Wright describes the Jiyû Gakuen started by Hani Motoko and her husband Yoshikazu as a ‘wonderful little “School of the Free Spirit” …’ and his time there as ‘one of the rare experiences of my life’ (p. 182). In this same text Wright wrote of the Japanese print: ‘Intrinsically the print lies at the bottom of this so-called modernism’ (p. 183). AB

Russel Wright (1904-1976)

Wright is an American designer who promoted the development of national design through his ‘American Modern’ design and the Good Design movement during the 1930s-50s. He was also involved in Asia through the American foreign aid programme promoting the idea of ‘Asian modern’. His advice on the promotion of handicrafts for export to the USA pushed forward the official launch of the ‘Japanese Good Handcrafts Promotion Scheme,’ and the subsequent implementation of design policy and system. Wright’s intervention in Asia is important in two ways: firstly, his contribution to the development of the ‘Japanese Modern’ style for craft-based design, and secondly, refashioning Japonisme, which formed an integral part of American modern cultural identity. YK

Yamada Mamoru (1894-1966) HC [Editing in progress]

Yamanaka Sadajiro (1866-1936) SO [Editing in progress]

Yanagi Sôetsu (Muneyoshi) (1889-1961)

Philosopher, collector and leader of the Mingei movement, Yanagi Sôetsu defined the term Mingei or folk crafts, as everyday utilitarian crafts used by common people. He theorised its supreme beauty, and led the nationwide Mingei movement. After the Second World War, Yanagi’s Mingei theory was refashioned as a Buddhist aesthetic theory, and the Mingei movement spread throughout the world. An aura of unique Oriental philosophy created by the trans-Atlantic lecture and demonstration tours by the trio Yanagi, Hamada Shôji and Bernard Leach, and by Leach’s adaptation of Yanagi’s ideas, The Unknown Craftsman (1972), exemplifies the phenomenon of post-war Japonisme. YK

Yashiro Yukio (1890-1975) SO [Editing in progress]

Yoshida Tetsurô (1894-1956)

The modern Japanese architect Yoshida, responsible for the Central Post Offices in Kyoto, Tokyo and Osaka, travelled in Europe and America from July 1931 to July 1932. He stayed in Berlin for four and a half months, giving a brief lecture on Japanese architecture at the Bauhaus in November 1931. From his base in Berlin, Yoshida visited Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, England, France, Holland, Hungary, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland, where he met eminent architects and commentators including: Hugo Häring in Berlin, Sigfried Giedion in Zurich, Gunnar Asplund in Stockholm, and F R Yerbury in London. He discovered that many of the architects whom he encountered demonstrated an interest in Japanese architecture. His book, Das japanische Wohnhaus, was first published in Germany in 1935, the second edition of which was published in Britain under the title of The Japanese House and Garden, in 1955. This was followed in 1957 by Gardens of Japan. AB

Histories

The Beat Generation

The sensational American poets and writers including Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs, Jack Kerouac, Gregory Corso, and later Kenneth Rexroth, Gary Snyder, Philip Whalen, Lew Welch, Michael McClure and Lawrence Ferlinghetti are usually categorised as the Beat Generation, and its literary and cultural movement initiated by them came to prominence in the 1950s before developing into a wider counter culture movement in the 1960s. The movement originated in New York and shifted later to California centring on San Francisco where the San Francisco Renaissance was steered by Kenneth Rexroth. They were inspired by ‘Eastern’ ideas such as spontaneity, nothingness, unity with nature and enlightenment. They were guided to Zen Buddhism by D. T. Suzuki and Alan Watts’s interpretation of Suzuki Zen, and a clear association with Japan can be found in Rexroth’s interest in Haiku and Jazz, Kerouac’s Dharma Bums and Gary Snyder’s poems. It is notable that Snyder’s training at Shōkokuji and Daitokuji temples during his stay in Japan (1956-68) developed his interpretation of Zen Buddhism into his idea of ecology in connection with his discovery of Native American Indian culture. YK

Fine Art Society TW

International Cooperation Administration (ICA)

In 1955 under the President Dwight Eisenhower’s administration, the International Cooperation Administration was established in the Department of State. As part of American Cold War policy, this organisation implemented various economic and cultural aid programmes in order to achieve the containment of non-Communist countries within the American sphere of influence. Russel Wright and other designers were commissioned by the ICA to investigate the situations of handcrafts in Asia in 1955 for the purpose of promotion of export to the USA, and it was featured in Industrial Design (3-4, 1956) as ‘The Designers as Economic Diplomat’. The Cold War context is an important backdrop to post-war Japonisme. YK

The Ipswich School of Art PS [Editing in progress]

Japan Folk Crafts Museum (Nihon Mingeikan) This private museum was founded by Yanagi Sôetsu, also the first director, in 1936 in Komaba, Tokyo, supported by a major funding from Ôhara Magosaburô, a philanthropist and entrepreneur in the textile industry. The Museum exhibits Yanagi’s collection of over 17,000 items of Mingei mainly from Japan, but also from Korea, China, Taiwan, Britain, Africa, and elsewhere. It also houses the headquarters of the Japan Folk Craft Association. During the US Occupation, the Museum received favourable protection by the GHQ, largely due to Langdon Warner’s friendship with Yanagi, and was visited by many American officers, dignitaries and tourists. YK

Japan Society of London TW

Japan Society, New York (1907-) SO [Editing in progress]

Jiyû Gakuen Institute for Art and Craft Studies YS [Editing in progress]

Kelekian Bros: dealers of antiquities Paris & New York JS

Kôgei Shidôsho YS [Editing in progress]

Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai (1934-1972) SO [Editing in progress]

Knoll Company YS [Editing in progress]

Leach Pottery (1920-1997, restored 2008) JS

Liberty’s AB [Editing in progress]

The Mingei School (The Japanese Folk Crafts School) YK [Editing in progress]

Nihon Bôeki Shinkôkai (Japan Export Trade Promotion Agency, 1958-1960; Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), 1961-

This organization was created as an agency of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1958 to conduct market research and promote Japanese export trade. During the 1950s and 60s, JETRO organized Japan’s attendance to international expositions, trade fairs and export exhibitions. Together with Japan Productivity Center (JPC) and Small and Medium Enterprises Agency (SMEA), JETRO also played a central role in facilitating a national project called the ‘Promotion of Japanese Handcrafts Export to the USA’¾popularly known as Marute (the Chinese character of ‘hand’ circled) and later called Maruyû (the Chinese character of ‘good’ circled), an abbreviation of ‘Japanese Good Handcrafts Promotion Scheme’. This project, initially suggested by Russel Wright, began in 1957 and was important in developing Japonisme in craft and craft-design in Euro-America. YK

Nihon Seisansei Honbu (Japan Productivity Center (JPC)

This organisation was established in March 1955 by a Cabinet decision in order to enhance the economic development of post-war Japan through American-style management and productivity movement. It was guided by the following principles: expansion of employment; cooperation between labour and management; and fair distribution of the fruits of productivity among labour, management, and consumers. JPC also worked as a liaising sub-office of the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) in Japan during the 1950s-60s, and organised the visits and seminars of designers, merchandisers and business leaders to and from the USA. It became a non-governmental organization (NGO) called the Japan Productivity Center for Socio-Economic Development (JPC-SED) in 1994 through the merger of JPC with the Social and Economic Congress of Japan (SECJ). YK

Nippon Bunka Chûô Renmei, Central Federation of Nippon Culture (1937-1945) SO

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The Northwest School of Art PS [Editing in progress]

Rottmann, Strome & Company and Priest, Marians & Company. YS

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The Provincetown Printers PS [Editing in progress]

School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) PS

The Silver Studio

Founded in 1880 by Arthur Silver, a professional designer trained at Reading School of Art, this commercial design company, based in West London, was run by the Silver family until 1963. During the 1890s Silver, much taken with things Japanese, worked with Alexander Rottman, an importer of Japanese papers, and inspired by Japanese stencils, the Silver Studio developed a pioneering technique of stencil decoration. This subsequently led to the company’s significance in the development of British Art Nouveau and during the interwar period they were able to fulfil the demand for Orient-inspired wallpapers. Silver Studio designs for furnishing fabrics, wallpapers, tablecloths, rugs and carpets were purchased by a variety of manufacturers in Britain and Europe; products produced were sold through European and American shops, including Liberty’s in London. As many of the company’s flat patterns were mass produced, Silver Studio designs could be found in numerous British homes and the company’s role in shaping interior design taste is not inconsequential. Much acclaimed during his lifetime, Silver was elected a member of the Royal Society of Arts in 1893 and both he and his company received appreciable coverage in The Studio magazine. Today the Silver Studio Collection is held at the Museum of Domestic Design and Architecture (MoDA), Middlesex University, www.moda.mdx.ac.uk. AB

Society for the Study of Japonisme TW

Smithsonian Institution Travelling Exhibition Service (SITES)

Established on 9th September 1951, Smithsonian Institution Travelling Exhibition Service (SITES) was funding from the Alice Pike Barney Memorial Fund. The remit of the service was to establish a programme of circulating exhibitions to encourage appreciation of contemporary art. The first exhibition in the United States was Contemporary Swiss Paintings, which opened on May 1 1952. The first Japanese show, Contemporary Japanese Prints, also opened in 1952 and was an exhibition of 35 works loaned by members of the Japanese Association of Creative Printmakers and offered for sale. It was co-curated by the Art Institute of Chicago. RS

Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP)/General Headquarters (GHQ)

SCAP is the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following Japan’s surrender (1945-52), and is generally referred to as GHQ in Japan. SCAP had an overall political and economic control of Japan, and implemented various programmes to demilitarise and democratise Japan. The economic and cultural programmes delivered by the Foreign Trade and Commerce Division and the Arts and Monuments Division of the Civil Information and Education Section (CIE) are particularly relevant for the investigation of the effect of this massive American intervention as well as the effect that the American civilian officers and military servicemen stationed in Japan brought about on American Japonisme. YK

芸そう堂 Unsôdô, Kyoto

The rival workshop to Watanabe in Tokyo was Unsôdô in Kyoto. Founded in 1887 by the Yamada family it initially concentrated on printing pattern books for the textile and lacquer trades. They later branched out into printing fine art books with woodblock illustrations as well as shin hanga artists. Some artists left Watanabe, who was known to be rather strict, and moved to Unsôdô instead. Two of their most famous artists were Kasamatsu Shirô (1898-1991) and Asano Takeji (1900-1999). Unsôdô is still run by the Yamada family. RS

渡辺版画堂 Watanabe Hangadô (Watanabe Print Workshop), Tokyo

The Tokyo workshop founded by Watanabe Shôzaburô (1885-1962) was at the forefront of the promotion of the shin hanga movement. Watanabe began his career in export and he used this expertise to good effect in his print business. He realized the attraction to the western market of ‘hybrid’ Japanese prints; traditional Japanese compositions with added western elements such as shadows. There was little interest in the home market but his prints, showing a rather romantic version of Japan, sold well in the USA and Europe until the difficult political climate of the 1930s. He survived these hard times by organizing shows in Japan in department stores. The business continues today and is still in the Watanabe family. Two of the most famous artists were Kawase Hasui (1883-1957) and the Englishman Charles W Bartlett (1860-1940). RS

War Relocation Centres TW

Yamanaka and Company SO [Editing in progress]

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